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DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.
The Persian and Hindustani translation of the Arabic Rasul and Nabi . [PROPHET.]
The Muhammadan Paradise is called al-Jannah "the garden," pl. jannat, in Arabic and Bihisht , in Persian; the word al-Firdaus , or Paradise, being restricted to one region in the celestial abodes of bliss. There are eight heavens or paradises mentioned in the Qur'an, and although they appear to be but eight different, names for the place of bliss, Muhammadan divines have held them to be eight different stages.
They are as follows (see Ghiyasu l-Lughah) :—
1. Jannatu 'l-Khuld (Suratu 'l-Furqan, xxv. 16,), The Garden of Eternity.
2. Daru 's-Salam (Suratu l-An'am, vi. 127), The Dwelling of Peace.
3. Daru 'l-Qarar (Suratu 'l-Mu'min, ii. 42). The Dwelling which abideth.
4. Jannatu 'l-'Adn (Suratu 'l-Bara'ah, ix. 73), The Gardens of Eden.
5. Jannatu '1-Ma'wa (Suratu 's-Sajdan, xxxii. 19), The Gardens of Refuge.
6. Jannatu 'n-Na'im (Suratu 1-Ma'idah, v. 70), The Gardens of Delight.
7. 'Illiyun (Suratu 't-Tatfif, lxxxiii. 18).
8. Jannatu 'l-Firdaus (Suratu 'l-Kahf. xviii. 107), The Gardena of Paradise.
These eight stages are spoken of as eight doors in the Miskat, book ii. ch. i.)
The sensual delights of Muhammad's Paradise are proverbial, and they must have exercised a considerable influence upon the minds of the people to whom he made known his mission: There are frequent allusions. to them in the Qur'an. The following are , specimen passages :—
Suratu '1-Insan (lxxvi.), 12—22 :—" God hath rewarded their constancy, with Paradise, and silken robes, reclining therein on bridal couches; nought shall they know of' sun or piercing cold; its shades shall close over them, and low shall its fruits hang down: and vessels of silver and goblets like flagons shall be borne round among them flagons of silver whose measure themselves shall mete. And there shall they be given to drink of the cup tempered with zanjabil (ginger) from the fount therein whose name is Salsabil (i.e. the softly flowing). Blooming youths go round among them. When thou loosest at them, thou wouldst deem them scattered pearls; and when thou seest this, thou wilt see delights and a vast kingdom; their clothing green silk robes kind rich brocade: with silver bracelets shall they be adorned: and drink of a pure beverage shall their Lord give them. This shall be your recompense."
Suratu 'l-Waqi'ah (lvi), 12—39 : "In garden of delight, a crowd of the former and a few of the later generations on inwrought couches reclining on them face to face,: blooming youths go round about them with goblets and ewers and a cup of flowing wins, their brows ache not from it, nor fails the sense: and with such fruits as shall please them best, and with flesh of such birds as they shall long for; and theirs shall he the Houris (Arabic hur), with huge dark eyes, like pearls hidden in their shells, in recompense for their labours past. No vain discourse shall they hear therein, nor charge of sin, but only cry 'Peace' Peace!.... Unfailing, unforbidden, and on lofty couches and of a rare creation have we made the Houris, and we have made them ever virgins, dear to their spouses and of equal age, for the people of the right hand, a crowd of the former, and a crowd of the later generations."
Suratu 'r-Rahman (lv.), 54—56: "On couches with linings of brocade shall they recline, and the fruit of the two gardens shall he within their easy reach. Therein shall he the damsels with retiring, glances, whom neither man nor jinn hath touched before them."
Suratu '1-Muhammad (xlvii.) 16, 17: "Therein are rivers of water which corrupt not; rivers of milk, whose taste changeth not; and rivers of wine, delicious to those who quaff it; and rivers of clarified honey: and therein are all kinds of fruit for them from their Lord."
The description of the celestial regions and the enjoyments promised to the faithful are still more minutely given in the traditional sayings of the Prophet; see the Mishkat, book xxiii. ch. xiii.
Abu Musa relates that "the Apostle of God said, Verily there is a tent, for every Muslim in Paradise, it is made of one pearl, its interior empty, its breadth 60 kos, and in every corner of it will be his wives : and they
shall not see one another. The Muslim shall love them alternately," &c.
Abu Sa'id relates that "the Apostle of God said, 'He who is least amongst the people of Paradise, shall have eighty thousand slaves, and seventytwo women, and has a tent pitched for him of pearls, rubies, and emeralds. . . . . Those who die in the world, young or old, are made of thirty years of age, and not more, when they enter Paradise.'" Abu Sa'id also relates that "the Apostle of God said, ' Verily a man in Paradise reclines upon seventy cushions, before he turns on his other side. Then a woman of Paradise comes to him and pats him on the shoulder, and the man sees his face in her cheek, which is brighter than a looking-glass, and verily her most inferior pearl brightens the east and west. Then the woman makes a salam to him, which he returns; and the man says," Who are you? " and she replies, "I am of the number promised of God for the virtuous." And verily she will have seventy garments, and the man's eyes will be fixed on them, till he will see the marrow of the bones of her legs through the calves of them, and she will have crowns on her head, the meanest pearl of which would give light between the east and west."
One of the attractions of Paradise is the river Kausar. [KAUSAR.] According to Anas, "the Apostle of God said, it is a river which God has given me in Paradise, its water is whiter than milk, and sweeter than honey, and on its waters are birds whose necks are like the necks of camels."
The following is an instance of the way in which the Prophet endeavoured to suit his paradise to the tastes of the people :—
Abu Aiyub says, An Arab came to the Prophet and said, 'O Apostle of God! I am fond of horses; are there any in Paradise?' The Prophet replied, 'if you are taken into Paradise, you will get a ruby horse, with two wings, and you will mount him, and be will carry you wherever you wish."
Abu Hruairah said, "Verily the Apostle of God said, when an Arab was sitting near him, that a man of the people of Paradise will ask permission of his Lord to cultivate land, and God will say, 'Have you not everything you could wish for? What will you cultivate?" The man will say, 'Yes, everything is present, but I am fond of cultivating.' Then he will be permitted to cultivate, and he will sow, and, quicker than the twinkling of an eye, it will grow. become ripe, and be reaped, and it will stand in sheaves like mountains."
The apologists for Islam, Carlyle for example, have suggested that the sensual delights of Muhammad's paradise may, after all, be taken in a figurative sense, as the Revelation of St. John or the Song of Solomon. lt is quite true that such an interpretation is hinted at in the Akhlaq-i-Jalali (Thompson's translation, p. 102), and Mr. Lane in his Egyptians (vol. i. p. 84) says that a Muslim of some learning considered the descriptions of Paradise figurative, but such is not the view held by Muhammadan doctors, whether Sunni, Shi'ah, or Wahhabi. They are all agreed as to the literal interpretation of the sensual enjoyments of the Muslim paradise, and very many are the books written giving minute particulars of the joys in store for the faithful.
Islam, true to its anti-Christian character, preaches a sensual abode of bliss, in opposition to the express teaching of our Lord in Matt. xxii. 30: "They neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels of God in heaven."
Were proof needed to show that the Prophet taught a real and literal interpretation of the sensual delights of the abodes of bliss, a tradition of high authority is found in the Sahihu Muslim (p. 379), vide also Mishkat, book xxiii. ch. 13), in which the Prophet goes to some trouble to explain the sanitary laws of the heavenly kingdom, in the most literal manner possible.
Sir William Muir says: "It is remarkable that the notices in the Coran of this voluptuous Paradise are almost entirely confined to a time when, whatever the tendency of his desires. Mahomet was living chaste and temperate with a single wife of threescore years of age. Gibbon characteristically observes that 'Mahomet has not specified the male companions of the female elect, lest he should either alarm the jealousy of the former husbands, or disturb their felicity by the suspicion of an everlasting marriage.' The remark, made in raillery, is pregnant with reason, and aims a fatal blow, at the Paradise of Islam. Faithful women will renew their youth in heaven as well as faithful men: why should not their good works merit an equal and analogous reward? But Mahomet shrank from this legitimate conclusion, It is noteworthy that in the Medina Suras — that is in all the voluminous revelations of the ten years following the Hegira — women are only twice referred to as one of the delights of Paradise; and on both occasions in these simple words :- and to them (believers) there shall be therein pure wives.' (Surah ii. 23, Surah iv. 60.) Was it that satiety had then left no longings unfulfilled; or that a closer contact with Judaism had repressed the budding pruriency of his revelation, and covered with confusion the picture of a sensual Paradise which had been drawn at Mecca?" (Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 82 and note.)
Sir W.. Muir has omitted a third passage, Surah iii. 13, where "women of stainless purity" are spoken of, but it is remarkable how much more restrained are the Prophet's descriptions of Paradise in his later revelations. For example, Surah xiii. 23, 24, 35:-
"Gardens of Eden — into which they shall enter together with the just of their fathers, and their wives and their descendants, and the angels , shall go in unto them at every portal: 'Peace be with you, say they, because ye have endured all things . . . . The rivers flow beneath its bowers; its food and its shades are perpetual."
PARDON FOR SIN.
The words used to exprees pardon for sins on the part of the Almighty, are 'Afin , Maghfirah , and Ghufran The act of seeking pardon is Istighfar .
The following is the teaching of the Qur'an on the subject:-
Surah liii. 32, 33: God's is what is in the heavens and what is in the earth, that He may reward those who do evil with evil, and those who do good with good. Those who shun great sins and iniquities — all but venial sins, — verily thy Lord is of ample forgiveness."
Surah lxvii. 12: "Verily those who fear their Lord in secret, for them is forgiveness and a great reward."
Surah xxxii. 71: "He (God) will correct you for your works and pardon you for your sins: for he who obeys God and His Apostle has attained a mighty happiness."
Surah xxxv. 8: "Those who believe and do right, for them is forgiveness."
Surah viii. 29: "O ye who believe! if ye fear God, He will make for you a discrimination, and will cover your offences and will forgive you; for God is the Lord of mighty grace."
Repentance is expressed in the Qur'an by the word Tabah , which the Imam an-Nawawi says means " turning the heart from sin." (Commentary on Sahihu Muslim, vol. ii. p. 354.) The word frequently occurs in the Qur'an. For example : —
Surah iv, 20: "If they repent and amend, then let them be. 'Verily God relenteth. He is merciful."
Surah xxv 71: "Whoso hath repented and hath done what is right, verily it is he who turneth to God with a true conversion" (matab).
The teaching of the traditions 'on the subject of repentance and pardon for sin is in some places exceedingly wild, as will be seen from the following selections taken from the sayings of the Prophet given in the Mishkat, book x. ch. iii:-
"There was a. man of the children of Israel, who killed ninety-nine people, after which he came out. asking if his repentance would be accepted; and having met a monk, he asked him. 'Is there acceptance for repentance?' The monk said, 'No.' Then the man killed the monk, and stood asking about the approval of his repentance. And a man said to him, 'Come to such a village.' Then the signs of immediate death were upon him, and he tried to reach the village upon his knees. and died on the way. Then the angels of mercy and punishment disputed about him. Then God ordered the village towards which the man had attempted to go to be near to the corpse; and the village which he had fled from to be far away from him. Then God said to the angels, 'Compute, and measure the distance between the two villages' And it was found that the village towards which he was going was nearer to him by one span. And he was pardoned."
An incesant sinner has not sinned that has asked pardon, although he may have sinned seventy times a day, because asking pardon is the coverer of sin."
God has said, 'Verily if you come before Me with sins equal to the duet of the earth, and then come before Me without associating anything with Me, verily I will come before you with the pardon equal to the dust of the earth."
"Verily God. accepts of the repentance of His servant as long as is soul does not come into his throat."
"I swear by God that verily I ask pardon of God and repent before - Him more than seventy times daily."
"Verily my heart is veiled with melancholy, and verily I ask pardon of God one hundred times a day."
"Verily, when a true believer commits a sin, a black spot is created in his heart; and if he repents and asks pardon of God, the black spot is rubbed off his heart; but if he increases his sins, the black spot increases, so that it takes hold of the whole heart. Then this spot is a rust which God has mentioned in the Qur'an, 'their hearts became rusty from their works.'"
"Verily there were two men of the children of Israel who had a friendship for each other. One of them was a worshipper of God, and the other a sinner. The worshipper of God said to the sinner, 'Give up sinning.' he said, 'Leave me to my Lord.' At length he found him committing a very great sin, and said, 'Give up sinning' The sinner said, 'Leave me to my Lord. Were you sent as a guard over me?' The worshipper said, 'I swear by God He will not always forgive your sins, nor will He bring you Into Paradise.' Then God sent an angel to them, who took both their souls, and they both appeared before God together. And God said co the sinner, 'Come into Paradise.' And he said to the other: 'What, can you prevent My compassion on my servant?' He said, 'I cannot, O my Lord.' And God said to the angels, 'Carry him to the fire.'"
The periods of six months and of two years are fixed as the shortest and longest periods of pregnancy, and, consequently any child born within those periods is assumed to be the child of the woman's husband, even though she be either a widow or divorced. This strange ruling of Muslim law is founded on a declaration of 'Ayishah, who is related to have said, "The child does not remain in the. womb of the mother beyond two years."
The Imam ash-Shafi'i. has said the longest period of pregnancy extends to four years (Hamilton's Hiddyah, vol. i. p. 383.)
If a person acknowledge the parentage of a child who is able to give an account of himself, and the ages of the parties are such as to admit of the one being the child of the other, and the parentage of the child be not
well known to any persons and the child himself verify the statement, the parentage is established. (Ibid., vol. iii, p. 169.)
Duty to, is frequently enjoined in the Qur'an; for example, Surah xvii. 24, 25: "Thy Lord hath decreed that ye shall not serve other than Him, and that ye shall be kind to your parents, whether one or both of them reach old age with thee; and. ye must not say, 'Fie!' (Uff) nor grumble at them, but speak to them a generous speech. And lower to them the wing of humility out, of compassion, and say,'O Lord! have compassion on them, as they brought me up when I was little!
In connection with the mosques of cities and villages there are appointed districts not unlike English parishes. Within these districts the Imam of the mosque is held responsible for the marriages and burials of the people, and his services can be claimed for these ceremonies, for which he receives customary fees. Any other Maulawi performing marriages or burials, is expected to obtain the permission of the Imam of the parish. In fact, the position of the Imam of a mosque is similar to that of a beneficed clergyman. He receives the marriage and burial fees, fees at the ceremony of circumcision, thank off offerings on the birth of a child or on recovery from sickness presents on the festival days, &c., as well as the waqf or endowment, of the mosque.
Arabic sabr . Is frequently enjoined in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah ii. 148: "O ye who believe! seek help through patience and prayer: verily God is with the patient."
PEN, The, of Fate.
Arabic ta'un waba' . According to the teaching of Muhammad in the traditions, a pestilence is a punishment sent by God, it is also an occasion of martyrdom, and that Muslim who abides in the place where he is at the time of a pestilence, and dies of it, is admitted to the rank of a martyr. It is also enjoined that Musalmans shall not enter a place where there is a pestilence raging, but remain where they are until it is passed. (Mishkat, book v. ch. 1.)
Arabic Fir'aun . Heb. The King of Egypt in ,the time of Moses. Considered by all Muhammadans to be the very personification of wickedness.
Al-Baizawi says Firaun was the common title of the kings of Egypt, just as Caesar was that of the Roman Emperors, and that the name of Pharaoh, according to some, was al-Walid ibn Mus'ab, and according to others Mus'ab ibn Raiyam, and according to others Qabus, and that he lived 620 years. Abu'l fida' says that Mus'ab being 170 years old and having no child, whilst he kept his herds he saw a cow calf, and heard her say at the same time,"O Mus'ab, be not grieved, thou shalt have a son, a wicked son, who shall be cast into hell," and that, this son was the wicked Fir'aun of the time of Moses.
In the Qur'an, Surah xxxviii. 11, he is surnamed Fir'aun Zu '1-Autud or "Pharaoh the master of the Stakes, who called the Apostles liars." Some say the stakes refer to the strength of his kingdom, others that they were instruments of torture and death which he used.
Pharaoh was drowned in the Red Sea, and the commentators say that Gabriel would not let his body sink, but that it floated as a sign and a warning to the children of Israel. (See Qur'an, Surah x. 90-92.)
A further account of Pharaoh, us given in the Qur'an, will be found in the article on Moses. The Pharaoh of Joseph's time is said to he Raiyan ibn al-Walid al-'Amliql, the ancestor of the renowned Pharaoh in the time of. Moses. [MOSES.]
Arabic falsafah , or 'ilmu 'l-hikmah . The following account of Arabian philosophy is taken with permission from Professor Ueberweg's History of Philosophy, translated by G. S. Morris, M.A. (Hodder and Stoughton), vol. i p. 406:-
"The whole phiolsophy of the Arabians was only a form of Aristotelianism, tempered more or less with Neo-Platonic conceptions. The medical and physical science of the Greeks and Greek philosophy became known to the Arabs especially under the rule of the Abassides (from A.D. 750 on), when medical, and afterwards (from the time of the reign of Alrnamun, in the first half of the ninth century) philosophical works were translated from Greek into Syriac and Arabic by Syriac Christians. The tradition of Greek philosophy was associated with that combination of Platonism and Aristotelianism which prevailed among the last philosophers of antiquity, and with the study by Christian theologians of the Aristotelian logic as a formal organon of dogmatics; but in view of the rigid monotheism of the Mohammedan religion, it was necessary that the Aristotelian metaphysics, and especially the Aristotelian theology, should be more fully adopted among the Arabs than among the Neo-Platoaists and Christians, and that in consequence of the union among the former of philosophical with medical studies, the works of Aristotle on natural science should be studied by them with especial zeal.
" Of the Arabian philosophers in the East, the most important were Alkendi (al-Kindi), who was still more renowned as a mathematician and astrologer; Alfarabi (al-Farabi), who adopted the Neo-Platonic doctrine of
emanation: Avicenna (Abu Sina), the representative of a purer Aristotelianism and a man who for centuries, even among the Christian scholars of the later medieval centuries, stood in the highest consideration as a philosopher, and, still more, as a teacher of medicine; and, finally. Algazel (al-Ghazzali), who maintained a philosophical skepticism in the interest of theological orthodoxy.
"The most important Arabian philosophers in the West; were Avempace (Thu Badja), Abubacer (Abu Bakr Ibn Tufail) and Averroës (Thu Rashid). Avempace and Abubacer dwell in their works on the idea of the independent and gradual development of man. Abubacer (in his 'Natural Man') develops this idea in a spirit of opposition to positive religion, although he affirms that positive religion and philosophical doctrine pursue the same end, namely, the union of the human intellect with the divine. Averroës, the celebrated commentator of Aristotle, interprets the doctrine of the latter respecting the active and the passive intellect in a sense which is nearly pantheistic and which excludes the idea of individual immortality. He admits the existence of only one active intellect, and affirms that this belongs in common to the whole human race, that it becomes temporarily particularized in individuals, but that each of its emanations becomes finally reabsorbed in the original whole, in which alone, therefore, they possess immortality."
"The acquaintance of the Mohammedan Arabs with the writings of Aristotle was brought about through the agency of Syrian Christians. Before the time of Mohammad, many Nestorian Syrians lived among the Arabs as physicians. Mohammed also had intercourse with Nestorian monks. Hareth Ibn Calda, the friend and physician of the Prophet, was a Nestorian. It was not, however, until after the extension of the Mohammedan rule over Syria and Persia, and chiefly after the Abassides had commenced to reign (A.D. 750), that foreign learning, especially in medicine and philosophy, became generally known among the Arabs. Philosophy had already been cultivated in those countries during the last days of Neo-Platonism, by David the Armenian about 500 A.D.; his Prolog. to Philos. and to the Isagoge, and his commentary on the Categ. in Brandis' Collection of Scholia. to Arist. his works, Venice, 1823; on him cf. C. F. Neumann, Paris, 1829) and afterwards by the Syrians, especially Christian Syrians, translated Greek authors, particularly medical, but afterward philosophical authors also, first into Syriac, and then from Syriac into Arabic (or they,' perhaps made use also of earlier Syriac translations some of which are today extant)."
During the reign and at the instance of Almamun (A.D. 813-833), the first translations of works of Aristotle into Arabic were made, under the direction of Johannes Ibn-al-Batrik (i.e. the son of the Patriarch, who, according to Renan [L.L, p. 57]. is to be distinguished from Johannes Mesue, the physician), these translations. in part still extant, were regarded (according to Abulfarsgius, Histor. Dynast, p. 153 et al.) as faithful but inelegant.
"A man more worthy of mention is Honein Ibn Ishak (Johannitius), a Neirtorian, who flourshed under Motewakkel, and died in 876. Acquainted with the Syriac, Arabic, and Greek languages, he was at the head of a school of interpreters at Bagdad, to which his son Ishak Ben Honein and his nephew Hobeisch-el-Asam also belonged. The works not only of Aristotle himself, but also of several ancient Aristotelians (Alexander Aphrodisiensis, Themistius, and also Neo-Platonic exegetes, such as Porphyry and Ammonius), and ot Galenus and others, were translated into (Syriac and) Arabic. Of these translations, also, some of those in Arabic are still existing, but the Syriac translations are all lost. (Honein's Arabic translation of the Categories has been edited by Jul. Theod. Zenker, Leips. 1846). In the tenth century new translations, not only of the works of Aristotle, but also of Theophrastus, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Theomistius, Syrianus, Ammonius, etc., were produced by Syrian Christians, of whom the most important were the Nestorians, Abu Baschar Mata and Jahja ben Adi, the Tagritan, as also Isa Ben Zaras. The Syriac translations (or revisions of earlier translations) by these men have been lost, but the Arabic translations were widely circulated and have in large measure been preserved; they were used by Alfarabi, Avicenna, Averroës, and the other Arabian philosophers. The Republic, Timcocus, and Laws of Plato, were also translated into Arabic. Averroës (in Spain, about 1150) possessed and paraphrased the Rep., but he did not the Politics of Aristotle; the book existing in MS. at Paris, entitled Siaset (Siyasah), i.e. Politica, is the spurious work De Regimme Principum s.Secretum Secretorum; the Polotics of Aristotle is not known to exist in Arabic. Farther, extracts from the Neo-Platonists, especially from Proclus, were translated into Arabic. The Syrians were led, especially in consequence of their contact with the Arabs, to extend their studies beyond the Organon; they began to cultivate in the Arabic language all the branches of philosophy on the basis of Aristotle's works, and in this they were afterwards followed by the Arabs themselves, who soon surpassed their Syrian teachers. Alfarabi and Avicenna were the scholars of Syrian and Christian physicians. The later Syrian philosophy bears the type of the Arabian philosophy. The most important represeutative of the former was Gregorius Barhebraeus or Abulfaragins, the Jacobite, who lived in the thirteenth century, and was descended from Jewish parents, and whose compendium of the Peripatetic philosophy (Butyrum Sapientice) is still of great authority among the Syrians."
"Alkendi (Abu Jusuf Jacub Ibn Eshak al Kendi. i.e. the father at Joseph, Jacob, son of Isaac, the Kendaean, of the district of Kendah) was born at Busra, on the Persian Gulf. where later, in the tenth century, the
brothers of Purity' or the Sincere Brethren, who collected in an Encyclopedia the learning then acceptable to the Arabians, were located. Hie lived during and after the first half of the ninth century, dying about 810. He was renowned as a mathematician, physician, and philosopher. He composed commentaries on the logical writings of Aristotle, and wrote also on metaphysical problems. In theology he was a rationalist. His astrology was founded on the hypothesis that all things are so bound together by harmonious causal relations, that each when completely conceived, must represent as in a mirror the whole universe.
"Alfarabi (Abu Nasr Mohammed ben Mohammed ben Tarkhan of Farab), born near the end of the ninth century, received his philosophical training mainly at Bagdad, where he also began to teach. Attached to the mystical sect of the Sufi, which Said Abdul Chair had founded about A.D. 820 (under the unmistakable influence of Buddhism, although Tholuck [Sufismus, Berlin, 1821 Blüthensammlung aus der Morgenländ. Mystik, Berlin, 1825] assigns to it a purely Mohammedan origin), Alfarabi went at a later epoch to Aleppo and Damascus, where be died A.D. 950. In logic Alfarabi follows Aristotle almost without exception. Whether logic is to be regarded as a part of philosophy or not, depends, according to Alfarabi. on the greater or less extension given to the conception of philosophy, and is therefore a useless question. Argumentation is the instrument by which to develop the unknown from the known; it is employed by the uten logicus logica docens is the theory which relates to this instrument, argumentation, or which treats of it as its subject (subjectum). Yet logic also treats of single concepts (incomplexa) as elements of judgments and argumentations (according to Alfarabi, as reported by Albertus M., De Proedicabil. i. 2 seq. cf., Prantl, Gesch. der Log., ii. p. 302 seq,) Alfarabi defines the universal (see Alb M., De Praed., ii. 5) as the unum de multus et in Mulitic, which definition is followed immediately by the inference that the universal has no existance apart from the individual (non habet esse separatum a multis). It is worthy of notice that Alfarabi does not admit in its absolute sense the aphorism: singulare sentitur, universale intlligitur, but teaches that the singular, although in its material aspect an object of sensible perception, exists in its formal aspect in the intellect, and, on the other hand, that the universal, although as such belonging to the intellect, exists also in sensu, in so far as it exists blended with the individual (Alb. An post. i. 1, 3). Among the contents of the Metaphysics of Alfarabi, mention is made of his proof of the existence of God, which was employed by Albertus Magnus and later philosophers. This proof is founded on Plat., Tim, p. 28:
and Arist. Metaph, vii. 7 etc., or on the principal that all change and all development must have a cause. Alfarabi distinguishes (Fontes Quaestionum, ch. 3 seq., in Schmölders Doc. Phil. Ar., p. 44), between that which has a possible and that which has a necessary existence, just as Plato and Aristotle distinguish between the changeable and the eternal). If the possible is to exist in reality, a cause is necessary thereto. The world is composite, hence it had a beginning or was caused (ch. 2). But the series of causes and effects can neither recede in infinitum, nor return like a circle into itself;: it must, therefore, depend upon some necessary link, and this link, is the first being (ens primum). This first being exists necessarily; the supposition of its non-existence involves a contradiction. It is uncaused, and needs in order to its existence no cause external to itself. It is the cause of all that exists. Its eternity implies its perfection. It is free from all accidents. It is a simple and unchangeable. As the absolutely Good it is at once absolute thought, absolute object of thought, and absolute thinking being (intelligentia, intslligible, intelligens). It has wisdom, life, insight, might, and will, beauty excellence, brightness; it enjoys the highest happiness, is the first willing being and the first object of will (desire). In the knowledge of his being, Alfarabi (De rebus studio Arist. phil. phoemitt. Comm., ch. 4, ap. Schmölders, Doc. ph. Arab, p. 22), sees the end of philosophy, and he defines the practical duty of man as consisting in rising, so far as human force permits it, into likeness with God. In his teachings respecting that which is caused by or derived from God (Fontes Quoest, ch. 6 seq,), Alfarabi follows the Neo-Platonists. His fundamental conception is expressed by the word emanation. The first created thing was the Intellect, which came forth from the first being (the of Plotinus; this doctrine was logically consistent only for Plotinus, not for Alfarabi, since the former represented his One as superior to all preficates, while Alfarabi, in agreement with Aristotle and with religious dogmatics, recognized in his first being intelligence). From this intellect flowed forth, as a new emanation, the Cosmical Soul, in the complication and combination of whose ideas the basis of corporeality is to he found. Emanation proceeds from the higher or outer spheres to the lower or inner ones. In bodies, matter and form are necessarily combined with each other. Terrestrial bodies are composed of the four elements. The lower physical powers, up to the potential intellect, are dependent on matter. The potential intellect, through the operation (in-beaming) of the active divine intellect, is made actual (intellectus in actu or in effectu), and this actual intellect, as resulting from development, may be called acquired intellect (intellectus acquisitus, after the doctrine of Alexander of Aphrodisias, concerning the ). The actual human intellect is free from matter, and is a simple substance, which alone survives the death of the body and remains indestructible. Evil is a necessary condition of good in a finite
world. All things are under divine guidance and are good, since all was created by God. Between the human understanding and the things which it seeks to know there exists (as Alfarabi teaches, De Intellecto el Intellectu, p. 48 seq.) a similarity of form, which arises from their having both been formed by the sense first being, and which makes knowledge possible.
"Avicenna (Abu Ali Al Hosain Abdallah Ibn Sina) was born at Afsenna, in the province of Bokhara, in the year 980. His mind was early developed by the study of theology, philosophy, and medicine, and in his youth he had already written a scientific encyclopedia. He taught medicine and philosophy in Ispahen.. He died at Hamadan in the fifty-eighth year of his life. His medical Canon was employed for centuries as the basis of instruction. In philosophy he set out from the doctrines of Alfarabi, but modified them by omitting many Neo-Platonic theorems and approximating more nearly to the real doctrine of Aristotle. The principle on which his logic was founded, and which Averroes adopted and Albertus Magnus often cites, was destined to exert a great influence. It was worded thus: Intellectus in formis agit universalitutem (Alb., De Proedicab, ii. 3 and 6). The genus, as also the species, the differentia the accidens, and the proprium, are in themselves neither universal nor singular. But the thinking mind, by comparing the similar forms, forms the genus logicum, which answers to the definition of the genus, viz. : that it is predicated of many objects specifically different, and answers the question, 'What is it? (tells the quiditas). It is the genus naturale which furnishes the basis of comparison. When the mind adds to the generic and specific the individual accidents, the singular is formed (Avic., Log., Venice edition, 1508, f. 12, ap. Prantl, Geschichte der Logik, ii. 847 seq.) Only figuratively, according to Avicenna, can the genus be called matter and the specific difference form; such phraseology (frequent in Aristotle) is not strictly correct. Avicenna distinguishes several modes of generic existence, viz.: ante res, in rebus and post res. Genera are ante res in the mind of God; for all that exists is related to God as a work of art is related to an artist; it existed in his wisdom and will before its entrance into the world of manifold existence in this sense, and only in this sense, is the universal before the individual. Realized with its accidents in matter, the genus constitutes the natural thing, res naturalis which the universal essence is immanent. The third mode of the existence of the genus is that which it has in being conceived by the human intellect; when the latter abstracts the form and then compares it again with individual objects to which by one and the same definition it belongs, in this comparisen (respectus) is contained the universal (Avic., Log., f. 12; Metaph., v. 1, 2,f. 87, in Prantl, ii. P. 349). Our thought, which is directed to things, contains nevertheless dispositions which are peculiar to itself; when things are thought, there is added in thought something which does not exist outside of thought. Thus universality as such, the generic concept and the specific difference, the subject and predicate, and other similar elements, belong only to thought. Now it is possible to direct the attention, not merely to things, but also to the dispositions which are peculiar to thought, and this takes place in logic (Metaph., i.2;iii. 10, in Prantl, ii. p. 320 )n this is based on the distinction of 'first' and 'second intentions.' The direction of attention to things is the first intention (intentio prima); the second intention (intentio secunda) is directed to the dispositions which are peculiar to our thinking concerning things. Since the universal as such belongs not to things, but to thought, it belongs to the second intention. The principle of individual plurality, according to Avicenna, is matter, which he regards, not with Alfarabi as an emanation from the Cosmical Soul, but but with Aristotle as eternal and uncreated; all potentiality is grounded in it, as actuality is in God. Nothing changeable can come forth directly from the unchangeable first cause. His first and only direct product is the inteligentia prima (the of Plotinus, as with Alfarabi); from it the chain of emanations extends throngh the various celestial spheres to our earth. But the issuing of the lower from the higher is to be conceived, not as a single, temporal act, but as an eternal act, in which cause and effect are synchronous. The cause which gave to things their existence must continually maintain them in existence; it is an error to imagine that things once brought into existence continue therein of themselves. Notwithstanding its dependence on God, the world has existed from eternity. Time and motion always were (Avic. Metaph., vi. 2, et al; cf. the account in the Tractatus de Erroribus, ap. Hauréau, Ph. Sc. i. p. 368). Avicenna distinguishes a two-fold development of our potential understanding into actuality, the one common, depending on instruction, the other rare, and dependent on immediate divine illumination . According to a report transmitted to us by Averroes, Avicenna, in his Philosophia Orientalis, which has not come down to us, contradicted his Aristotellan principles, and conceived by God as a heavenly body."
"Algazel (Abu Hamed Mohammed ibn Achmed Al-Ghazzali), born A..D. 1059 at Ghazzalah in Khorasan taught first at Bagdad, and afterwards having become a Sufi, resided in Syria. He died A.D. 1111 at Tus. He was a sceptic in Philosophy, but only that his faith might be all the stronger in the doctrines of theology. His course in this respect marked a reaction of the exclusively religious principle of Mohammedanism against philosophical speculation - which in spite of all accommodation had not made itself fully orthodox - and particularly against Aristotelianism; between the mysticism of the Neo-Platonist, on the contrary, and the Sufism of Algazel, there existed an essential affinity. In his Makacid al filasifa (Maqasidu 'l-Fala-
sifah), The Aims of the Philosophers, Algazel sets forth the doctrines of philosophy following essentially Alfarabi and particularly Aviecenna. These doctrines are then subjected by him to a hostile criticism in his Tehafot al filasifah (Tahafutu '1- Falasifah), 'Against the Philosophers,’ while in his 'Fundamental Principles of Faith,’ he presents positively his own views. Averroës wrote by way rejoinder his Destructio Destructionis Philosophorum. Algazel exerted himself especially to excite a fear of the chastisements of God, since in his opinion the men of his times were living in. too great assurance. Against the philosophers he defended particularly the religious dogmas of the creation of the world in time and out of nothing, the reality of the divine attributes, and the resurrection of the body, as also the power of God to work miracles, in opposition to the supposed law of cause and effect. In the Middle Ages, his exposition of logic, metaphysics, and physic as given in the Makaacid, was much read.
"The result of the skepticism of Algazel was in the East the triumph of an unphilosophical orthodoxy; after him there arose in that quarter no philosopher worthy of mention. On the other hand, the Arabian philosophy began to flourish in Spain, where a succession of thinkers cultivated its various branches."
"Avempace (Abu Bekr Mohammed be Jahja Ibn Badja), born at Saragossa near the end of the eleventh century, was celebrated as a physician, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher. About 1118 he wrote, at Seville, a number of logical treatises. At a later period he lived in Granada, and afterwards also in Africa. He died at not a very advanced age in 1138, without having completed any extensive works; yet he wrote several smaller (mostly lost) treatises, among which, according td Munk (Mélanges, p. 386), were Logical Tractates (still existing, according to Casiri, Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp. Esrcurialensis, i. p. 179, in the library of the Escurial), a work on the soul another on the conduct of the solitary (regime de solitaire), also on the union of the universal intellect with man, and a farewell letter; to these may be added commentaries on the Physics, Meteorology, and other works of Aristotle relating to physical science. Munk gives the substance of the 'Conduct of the Solitary,’ as reported by a Jewish philosopher of the fourteenth century, Moses of Narbonne (Mel., pp. 389-409). This work treats of the degrees by which the soul rises from that instinctive life which it shares with the lower animals, through gradual emancipation from materiality and potentiality to the required intellect (intetlectus acqiuiaitus) which is an emanation from the active intellect or Deity. Avempace seems (according to Averroes, De Anima, fol. 168A.) to have identified the intellecus materialis with the imaginative faculty. In the highest grade of knowledge (in self-consciousness) thought is identical with its object."
"Abubacer (Abu Bakr Mohammed Abd al Malic Ibn Tophail al Keisi) was born in about the year 1100, at Wadi-Asch (Guadix), in Andalusia, and died in 1185, in Morocco. He was celebrated as a physician, mathematician, philosopher, and poet, and pursued still further the path of speculation opened up by Ibn Badja. His chief work, that has come down to us, is entitled Haji Ibn Jakdhan (Haiyu bnu Yaqzan), i.e. the Living One, the Son of the Waking One. The fundamental idea is the same in Ibn Badja’s 'Conduct of the Solitary’, it is an exposition of the gradual development of the capacities of man to the point where his intellect becomes one with the Divine. But urn Tophail goes considerably farther than his predecessor in maintaining the independence of man in opposition to the institutions and opinions of human society. In his theory he represents the individual as developing himself without external aid. That independence of thought and will, which man now owes to the whole course of the previous history of the human race, is regarded by him as existing in the natural man, out of whom he makes an extra historical ideal (like Rousseau in the eighteenth century). Ibn Tophail regards positive religion, with its law founded on reward and punishment, as only a necessary means of discipline for the multitude; religions conceptions are in his view only types or envelopes of that truth to the logical comprehension of which the philosopher gradually approaches.
"Averroes (Abul Walid Mohammed Ibn Achmed Ibn Roschd), born A.D. 1126, at Cordova, where his grandfather and father filled high judicial offices, studied first positive theology and jurisprudence, and then medicine, mathematics, and philosophy. He obtained subsequently the office of judge at Seville, and afterwards at Cordova. lH was a junior contemporary and friend of Ibn Tophail, who presented him to Calif Aim Jacub Jusuf, soon after the latter’s ascent of the throne (1163), and recommended him, in place of himself, for the work of preparing an analysis of the works of Aristotle. Ibn Roschd won the favour of this prince, who was quite familiar with the problems of philosophy, and at a later epoch he became his physician in ordinary (1182). For a time also, he was in favour with a son of the prince. Jacub Almansur, who succeeded to his father’s ru1e in 1184, and he was still honoured by him in 1195. But soon after this date he was accused of cultivating the philosophy and science of antiquity to the prejudice of he Mohammedan religion, and was robbed by Almansur of his dignities and banished to Elisana (Lucena) near Cordova; he was afterwards tolerated in Morocco. A strict prohibition was issued against the study of Greek philosophy, and whatever works on logic and metaphysics were discovered were delivered to the flames. Averroes died in 1198, in his seventy-third year. Soon after, the rule of the Moors in Spain came to an end. The Arabian philosophy was extinguished, and liberal culture sunk under the
exclusive rule of the Koran and of dogmatics.
"Averroes shows for Aristotle, the most unconditional reverence, going in this respect much farther than Avicenna; he considers him, as the founders of religion are wont to be considered, as the man whom alone, among all men, God permitteed to reach the highest summit of perfection Aristotle was, in his opinion, the founder and perfecter of scientific knowledge. In logic Averroet eveiywbere bmtts himself to merely annotating Aristotle. The principle of Aviccena: intellectus in forminagit universalitatem is also his (Averr De An. i 8., cf. Alb. M. De Proedicab, i ch 6) Science treats not of universal things, but of individuals under their universal aspect, which the understanding recognizes after making abstraction of there common nature (Destr destr fol 17 Scientia autem non est scientia rel universalis, sed est scientia particularium modo universali, quem facit intellectum in particularibus. Quum abstrahit ab iis naturam unam commenene, quae divisa est in materiis. The forms which are developed through the influence of higher forms, and in the last resort through the influence of Deity, are contained embryonically in matter."
"The most noticeable thing in his psychology is the explanation which he gives of the Aristotelian distinction between. the active and the passive intellect and . Thomas Aquinas, who opposes the explanation, gives it in those words: Intellectum substantiam esse omnino ab anima separatum, esseque unum in omnibus hominibus: — nec Deum facers posse quod sint plures intellectus; but, he says, Averroes added: per rationed concludodi necessitate quod intellectur est unus numero, firmiter tamen teneo oppositum per fidem. In his commentary to the twelfth book of the Metaphysics, Averroes compares the relation of the active reason to man with that of the sun to vision, as the sun, by its light, brings about the act of seeing, so the active reason enables us to know, hereby the rational capacity in man is developed into actual reason, which is one with the active reason. Averroës attempts to recognise two opinions, the one of which he ascribes to Alexander of Aphrodisias, and the other to Themistius and the other commentators. Alexander he says, had held. the passive intellect to be a mere 'disposition' connected with the animal faculties, and, in order that it might be able perfectly to receive all forms, absolutely formless; this disposition was in us, but the active intellect , was without us; after our individual intellects no longer existed Themistius, on the contrary, and the other commentators, had regarded the passive intellect not as a mere disposition connected with the lower psychical powers, it as inhering in the same substratum to which the active intellect belonged; this subsratum, according to them, was distinct from those animal powers of the soul which depend on material organs, and as it was immaterial, immortality was to be predicated of the individual intellect inhering in it. Averroes, on the other hand, held that the passive intellect loot was indeed more than a mere disposition, and assumed (with Themsistius and most of the other Commentators, except Alexander) that the same substances was passive and active intellect (namely, the former in so far as it received forms, the latter in so far as it constructed forms) ; but he denied that the same substance in itself and in its individual existence was both passive and active assuming (with Alexander) that there existed only one active intellect in the world, and that man had only the 'disposition' in virtue of which he could be affected by the active intellect, when the active intellect came in contact with this this position, there arose in us the passive, or material intellect the one active intellect, the one becoming on its entrance into the plurality of souls particularized in them, just as light is decomposed into the different colours in bodies. The passive intellect was (according to Munk's translation): Une chose composée de la disposition qui existe en nous et d'un intellect qui se joint la cette disposition, et qui, en tant qu'il y est jint, est un intellect prédisposé (en puissance) et non pas un intellect en acte, mais qui est intellect en acte en tant qu'il n'est plus joint ŕ la disposition (from Commentaire moyen sur le traité de l'Ame, in Munk's Mél , p 447), the active intellect worked first upon the passive, so as to develop it into actual and acquired intellect and, then on this latter, which it absorbed into itself, so that after our death it could be said that our , mind, continued to exist - though not as an individual substance, but only as an element of the universal mind. But Averröes did not identify this universal mind (as Alexander of Aphrodisias identified the ) with the Deity himself but conceived it (following in this the earlier Arabian commentators and directly the Neo-Platonists) as an emanation from the Deity, and as the mover of the lowest of the celestial circles, i.e. the sphere of the moon. This doctrine was developed by Averroes, particularly in his commentaries on the De Anima, whereas, in the Paraphrase (written earlier) he had expressed himself in a more individualistic sense (Averr., op. Munk, Mélanges, p. 442 seq) The psychological teaching of Averroës resembled, therefore, in the character of its definitions, that of Themistius, but in its real content that of Alexander Aphrodisiensis, since both Averroes and Alexande limited the individual existence of the human intellect to the period proceeding death, and recognized the eternity only of the one universal active intellect . For this reason the doctrine of the Alexandrists and of the Averroists were both condemned by the Catholic Church."
"Avveroes professes himself in no sense hostile to religion, least of all to Mohammedansim, which he regarded as the most perfect
of all religions. He demanded in the philosopher a grateful adherence to the religion of his people, the religion in which he was educated. But by this 'adherence' he meant only skillful accommodation of his views and life to the requirements of positive religion — a course which could not but fail to satisfy the real defenders of the religious principle. Averroes considered religion as containing philosophical truth under the veil of figurative representation; by allegorical interpretation one might advance to purer knowledge, while the masses held to the literal sense. The highest grade of intelligence was philosophical knowledge; the peculiar religion of the philosopher consisted in the deepening of his knowledge; for man could offer to God no worthier cultus than that of the knowledge of his works, through which we attain to the knowledge of God himself in the fullness of His essence. (Averroes in the larger Commentary on the Metaph. Ap. Munk, Mélanges, p. 455 seq.).
Dr. Marcus Dods remarks that "in philosophy the attainments of the Arabians have probably been overrated (see Lit. Hist.of Middle Ages, by Berrington, p. 446) rather than depreciated. As middlemen or transmitters, indeed, their importance can scarcely be too highly estimated. They were keen students of Aristotle when the very language in which he wrote was unknown in Roman Christendom: and the commentaries of Averroes on the most exact of Greek philosophers are said to be worthy of the text. It was at the Mohammedan university in his native city of Cordova, and from Arabian teachers, that this precursor of Spinoza derived those germs of thought whose fruit may be seen in the whole history of scholastic theology. And just before Averroes entered these learned halls, a young man passed from them equipped with the same learning, and gifted with genius and penetration of judgment which have made his opinions final wherever the name of Memonides is known. Undoubtedly these two fellow-citizens - the Mohammedan Arab, and the Arabic speaking Jew — have left their mark deep on all subsequent Jewish and Christian learning. And even though it be doubted whether their influence has been wholly beneficial, they may well be claimed as instances of the intellectual ardour which Mohammedan learning could inspire or awaken. A recent writer of great promise in the philosophy of religion has assigned to the Arab thinkers the honorable function of creating modern philosophy.'Theology and philosophy became in the hands of the Moors fused and blended; the Greek scientific theory as to the origin of things interwound with the Hebrew faith in a Creator. And so speculation became in a new and higher sense theistic; and the interpretation of the universe, the explication of God's relation to it and its relation to God.' (Fairhairn's Studies, p. 398.) But speculation had become theistic long before there was an Arab philosophy. The same questions which firm the staple of modern philosophy were discussed at Alexandria three centuries before Mohammed; and there is scarcely a Christian thinker of the third or fourth century who does not write in presence of the great problem of God's connection with the world, the relation of the Infinite to the finite, of the unseen intangible Spirit to the crass material universe. What we have here to do with, however, is not to ascertain whether modern philosophy be truly the offspring of the unexpected marriage of Aristotle and the Koran, but whether the religion promulgated in the latter is or is not obstructive of intellectual effort and enlightenment. And enough has been said to show that there is nothing in the religion which necessarily and directly tends to obstruct either philosophy or science; though when we consider the history and achievements of that nice which has for six centuries- been the leading representative of Islam, we are inclined to add that there is nothing in the religion which necessarily leads on the mind to the highest intellectual effort. Voltaire, in his own nervous way, exclaims, 'I detest the Turks, as the tyrants of their wives and the enemies of the arts,' And the religion has shown an affinity for such uncivilised races. It has not taken captive any race which possesses a rich literature, nor has it given birth to any work of which the world demands a translation; and precisely in so far as individuals have shown themselves possessed of great speculative and creative genius, have they departed from the rigid orthodoxy of the Koran. We should conclude, therefore, that the outburst of literary and scientific enthusiasm in the eighth century was due, net directly to the influence of the Mohammedan religion, but to the mental awakening and exultant consciousness of power and widened horizon that came to the conquering Saracens. At first their newly awakened energy found scope in other fields than that of philosophy. 'Marte undique obstrepenti, musis vix erat locus,' But when the din of war died down, the voice of the Muses was heard, and the same fervour which had made the Saracen arms irresistible, was spent now in the acquirement of knowledge."— Mohammed, Buddha, and Christ. p. 118)
Muhammad cursed the painter or drawer of men and animals (Mishkat, book xii, ch. i. pt. 1). and consequently they are held to be unlawful.
PILGRIMAGES TO MAKKAH.
are of two kinds: the Hajj or special pilgrimage performed in the month of Zu 'l-Hijjah, and the 'Umrah, or visitation, which may be performed at any time of the year. [HAJJ, 'UMRAH.]
PLAGUES OF EGYPT.
The following references occur to the ten plagues of Egypt in the Qur'an.
Surah viii. 127—135: "Already had we chastised the people of Pharaoh with dearth and scarcity of fruits, that haply they might take warning: and when good fell to their lot they said,' This is our due.' But if ill befell them, they regarded Moses and his partizans as (the birds) of ill omen. Yet, was not their evil omen from God? But most of them knew it not. And they said,- 'Whatever sign thou bring us for our enchantment, we will not believe on them. And we sent upon them the flood and the locusts and the qummal (lice) and the frogs and the blood, - clear signs - but they behaved proudly, and were a sinful people. And when any plague fell upon them, they said, 'O Moses! pray for us to thy Lord, according to that which he hath covenanted with thee: Truly if thou take off the plague from us, we will surely believe thee, and will surely send the children of Israel with thee,' But when we had taken off the plague from them, and the time which God had granted them had expired, behold! they broke their promise. Therefore we took vengeance on them and drowned them in the sea, because they treated our signs as falsehoods and were heedless of them. And we gave to the people who had been brought so low, the eastern and the western lands, which we had blessed as an heritage: and the good word of thy Lord was fulfilled on the children of Israel because they had borne up with patience; and we destroyed the works and the structures of Pharaoh and his people: And we brought the children of Israel across the sea, and they came to a people who gave themselves up to their idols. They said, 'O Moses! make us a god, as they have gods.' He said, 'Verily, ye are an ignorant people: for the worship they practice will be destroyed, and that which they do is vanity!'"
In the Surah xvii. 103—104, they are referred to as "nine clear signs," which some commentators understand to be the commandments of Moses.
"We heretofore gave to Moses nine clear signs. Ask thou, therefore, the children of Israel how it was when he came unto them, and Pharaoh said to him 'Verily, I deem thee, O Moses, a man enchanted."
"Said Moses, 'Thou knowest that none hath sent down these clear signs but the Lord of the Heavens and of the Earth; and I surely deem thee, O Pharaoh, a person lost.' "
Mr. Sale, translating from the Jalalan and al-Baizawi, says: "These were, the changing his rod into a serpent, the making his hand white and shining, the producing locusts, lice, frogs, and blood, the dividing of the Red Sea, the bringing water out of the rock, and the shaking of Mount Sinai over the children of Israel. In lieu of the three last, some reckon the inundation of the Nile, the blasting of the corn and scarcity of the fruits of the earth, These words, however, are interpreted by others not of nine miracles, but of nine commandments, which Moses gave his people, and were thus numbered up by Muhammad Himself to a Jew, who asked him the question, viz. That they should not be guilty of idolatry, nor steal, nor commit adultery or murder, nor practice sorcery or usury, nor accuse an innocent man to take away his life, or a modest woman of whoredom, nor desert the army, to which he added the observing of the Sabbath as a tenth commandment, but which peculiarly regarded the Jews, upon which answer, it is said, the Jew kissed the Prophet's hand and feet."
Arabic as-sayydrah . According to Arabic writers, there are Seven planets, called an-Najumu 's-Sayyarat , or, collectively, as-Sayyarah, the wandering stars, as distinguished from fixed stars, or an-Najamu 's-sawabit . These planets are said to be situated in the seven firmaments in the following order; (1). Al-Qamar, Moon; (2) Utarid, Mercury; (3) Zuhrah, Venus, (4) ash-Shams, Sun; (5) at-Mirrikh, Mars; (6) ai-Mushtari Jupiter; (7) Zuhal, Saturn. (Vide Kashaf-I-Istiluhat, in loco.)
It will be seen that the Arabian arrangement of the planets is that of Ptolemy, who placed the earth in the centre of the universe, and nearest to it the moon, whose synodic revolution is the shortest of all, being performed in 29 1/2 days, Next to the moon he placed Mercury, who returns to his conjunctions in 116 days. After Mercury followed Venus, whose periodic time is 584 days. Beyond Venus he placed the Sun, then Mars, next Jupiter, and lastly Saturn, beyond which he fixed stars.
Arabic ghanimah , fay' . If the Imam, or leader of the Muslim army, conquer a country by force of arms, he is at liberty to leave the land in possession of the original proprietors, provided they pay tribute, or he may divide it amongst the Muslims; but with regard to movable property, it is unlawful for him to leave it in possession of the infidels, but he must bring it away with the army and divide it amongst the soldiers. Four-fifths of the spoils belong to the troops the remaining one-fifth must be divided into three equal portions for the relief of orphans, the feeding of the poor, and the entertainment of travellers. Captives form part of the plunder. All cattle and baggage which cannot be carried away upon a retreat, must destroyed. (Hidayah, vol. ii. P. 159; Mishkat xvii. ch. viii. pt. 1.)
Arabic sha'ir , pl. shu'ara. Poetry, shi'r . Muhammad repudiated the idea of being a poet.
Surah xxxvi. 69: "We have not taught poetry, nor was it proper for him, it is but a reminder and a plain Qur'an."
Surah 40, 41: " Verily it is the speech of a noble apostle; and it is not the speech of a poet."
The Qur'an being a manifest rhythm, and
in some places actual poetry, the declaration of the Prophet, that he was not a poet has mach perplexed the commentators. But the Imam Fakbru 'd Din ar-Razi, has hit upon the following clever explanation of the difficulty. He says, that in order to be a poet it is absolutely necessary that the poem should not be impromptu verses, but deliberately framed, and that, therefore, although the Qur'an contains poetry (for example, in Surah xciv,, which begins thus :—
Alam nashrah laka sudraka
"Have we not opened thy breast for thee?
It is not really poetry, because the writer did not deliberately intend to produce the rhythm!
The same excuse is urged for the lines which Muhammad is related to have uttered impromptu when his toe was wounded in battle:—
Hal anti illa isba'un damiti?
"Art thou anything but a toe covered with blood?"
Arabic scholars (see Kashfu Istilahati 'l-Funun, in loco) divide the Arabic poets into six periods:-
(1) Al-Jahiliyun, those in the time of ignorance, or before Islam, such as the ancient Arabic poets Zuhair, Tarafah, Imru 'l-Qais, 'Amr ibn Kulsum; al-Haris, and 'Antarah.
(2) Al-Mukhzaramun (lit. "spurious "), those born in the time of ignorance, but who embraced Islam, as Labid and Hassan, whose names occur in the traditions.
(3) Al-Mutaqaddimun (lit. "first "), those who were born in the time of Islam, of parents who were converts to Islam, as Jarir and Farazdaq.
(4) Al-Muwalladun, those who were born of true-born Muslims, as Bashar.
(5) Al-Muhdisun, the third generation of Moslem poets, as Abu Taminam, and Bukhtari.
(6) Al-Muta'akhkhirun (lit. " the last "), all succeeding poets.
The Mutaqaddimum, the Muwalladun, and the Muhdisun, correspond with the Ashab,. the Tabi'in, and the Tabi 'Tabi'un, or the the first generations of Muslims.
There are seven poems of ancient Arabia, who are known in history as the Mu'allaqat or "suspended," because they had been in turn supended on the walls of the Makkan temple. They are also known as Muzahhabat, or the "golden" poems, because they were written in gold. The names of their author are Zuhair, Tarafah, Imru 'l-Qais, 'Amru ibn Kulsum, al-Haris, Antarah, and Lahid. The last of the seven embraced Islam. It is related that Labid had posted up in the Ka'bah his poem, beginning:
Ala kulla sha'in ma khala 'llaha batilu.
'Know that everything is vanity but God."
But that, when he saw the first verses of the Suratu 'l-Baqarah (ii.) of the Qur'an posted up he withdrew his verses and embraced Islam. Muhammad repaid Labid with the compliment that the words,' "Know that everything is vanity but God," were the truest words ever, uttered by a poet. (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. x.)
In the earlier part of his mission, Muhammad affected to despise the poets, and, in the Qur'an we find him saying (Surah xxvi. 224), "Those who go astray follow the poets"; and in the Traditions, Mishkat, book xxii ch. x.: "A belly full of purulent matter is better thsn a. belly full of poetry." But when Labid and Hassan embraced Islam, the poets rise into favour, and the Prophet utters the wise but cautious saying, that "poetry is a kind, of composition, which if it is good it is good., and if it is bad it is bad." In the battle with the Banu Quraizah, the Prophet called out to Hassan the poet," Abuse the infidels in your verse, for truly the Holy Spirit (in the Hadis it is Gabriel) will help you." It is also related that the Prophet used to say, "O Lord! help Hassan the poet by the Holy Spirit (or Gabriel)."
It is generally admitted by Arabic scholars that the golden age of Arabic poetry was that immediately preceding or contemporaneous with Muhammad, and that from the time of Muhammad there was a gradual decline. This is not surprising, inasmuch as the Qur'an is considered the most perfect model of composition ever revealed to mankind, and to be written in the language of Paradise.
Baron MacGuckin de Slane, in his Introduction to Ibn Khallikan's Dictionary, says:—
"The oldest monuments of Arabic literature which we still possess were composed within the century which preceded the birth of Muhammad. They consist in short pieces of verse uttered on the spur of the moment, narrations of combats between hostile tribes, passages in rhythmical prose and kasidas (qasidahs), or elegies. The study of these remains reveals the existence of a language, perfect in its form and application, admirably suited to express, the various ideas which the aspect of nature could suggest to a pastoral people, and as equally adapted to portray the fiercer passions of the mind. The variety of its inflections, the regularity of its syntax; and the harmony of its prosody, are not less striking, and they furnish in themselves a sufficient proof of the high degree of culture which the language of the Arabic nation had already attained. The superior merit of this early literature was ever afterwards acknowledged by the Arabs themselves. It furnished them not only with models, but ideas for their poetical productions, and its influence
has always continued perceptible in the Kasida, which still contains the same thoughts, the same allusions as of old, and drags its slow length along in monotonous dignity... (p. xv.)
"The decline of Arabic poetry can be easily traced down from the accession of the Abbasides to the time of the Aiyubites: for many centuries the patrons of the belles lettres were of foreign extraction, and writers who sought their favour were obliged to conform their own judgment to that of persons who were in general unable to appreciate the true beauties of literary compositions. Works which had obtained the patronage of the prince could not fail to fix the attention of other poets; who took them as models which they strove to imitate and to surpass. The opinion held in the schools that the ancient kasidas were masterpieces of art, contributed also to the perversion of good taste, their plan and ideas were servilely copied, and it was by refinement of expression alone that writers could. display their talent; verbal quibbles, far-fetched allusions, thoughts borrowed from the old writers, and strained so as to be hardly recognisable, such were the means by which they strove to attain originality; sense was sacrificed to sound, the most discordant ideas were linked together for the futile advantage of obtaining a recurrence of words having a similar written form or a similar pronunciation; poets wrote for the ear and the eye, not for the mind, and yet the high estimation in which their productions were held may be judged from the readiness of Ibn Khallikan to quote them. His taste was that of the age in which, he lived, and the extracts which he gives enable the reader to form an idea of the Arab mind at the period of the Crusades. The same feeling of impartiality which induces me to express so severe a censure on the generality of the Islamic poets, obliges me to also make some exceptions. The kasidas of al-Mutanabbi are full of fire, daring originality, and depth of thought; he often reached the sublime, and his style, though blemished by occasional faults, is very fine al-Bohtori is remarkable for grace and elegance; Abu-l-Ala for dignity and beauty; but Ibn-al-Farid seems superior to them all, his pieces teem with sentiment and poetry, in his mystic reveries he soars towards the confines of another world pervaded with spiritual beauty, and glides with the reader from one enchanting scene to another; the judgment is captiva ted by the genius of the poet, and can hardly perceive the traits ot false taste which diefigure, from time to time, his admirable style. Having pointed out the influence of the kasida, or elegy, it may not be amiss to sketch the plan generally followed in this species of composition, The poet, accompanied by two friends, approaches, after a long journey through the desert, to the place where he saw his mistress the year before, and wheic he hopes to meet her again. At his request, they direct the camel's on which they are mounted towards the spot, but the ruins of the rustic dwellings, the withered moss, brushwood, and branches of trees, with which were formed the frail abodes where the tribe had passed the summer, the hearthstones blackened by the fire, the solitary raven hovering around in search of a scanty nourishment, every object he perceives strikes him with conviction that his beloved and her family have removed to some other region in the desert. Overcome with grief, heedless of the consolations of his friends, who exhort him to be firm, he long remains plunged in silent affliction; at length he finds relief in a torrent of tears, and, raising up his head, he extemporizes a mournful elegy. He commences by mentioning the places which he had already visited in hopes of finding her whom he loved, and calls to mind the dangers which he had encountered in the desert. He describes the camel which, though fatigued, still full of ardour, had borne him into the depths of the wilderness, be vaunts his own courage and extols the glory of his tribe. An adventure which happened on the previous night then comes to his memory: s fire blazing on a lofty hill, had attracted their attention and guided them to the tent of a generous Arab, where they found shelter and hospitality. He then praises the charms of his mistress, and complains of the pains of love and absence, whilst his companions hurry him away. He casts a parting look towards the place where she had resided, and lo! a dark cloud, fringed with rain, and rent with lightnings overhangs the spot. This sight fills his heart with joy! an abundant shower is about to shed new life upon the parched soil, and thus ensure a rich herbage for the flocks; the family of his beloved will then soon return, and settle again in their former habitation."
"Such may be considered as the outline ot the pastoral kasida.. In these productions the same ideas almost constantly recur, and the same words frequently serve to express them. The eulogistic kasida, or poem in praise of some great man, assumes also the same form, with the sole difference that in place of a mistress it is a generous patron whom the poet goes to visit, or else, after praising the object of his passion, be celebrates the noble qualities of the man who is always ready, with, abundant gifts, to bestow consolation on the afflicted lever."
"It results from this that a person familiar with the mode of composition followed in the kasida, can often, from a single word in a verse, perceive the drift of the poet, and discover, almost intuitively, the thoughts which are to follow. He has thus a means of determining the true readings amidst the mass of errors with which copyists usually disfigure Arabic poetry knowing what the poet intends to say, he feels no longer any difficulty in disengaging the author's words from the faults of a corrupted text. The same peculiarity is frequently perceptible in pieces of a few verses; these generally reproduce some of the ideas contained in the kasida, and for this reason they are justly styled fragments by Arabic writers.
"There exists, also, come compositions of an original form such are the dubait, or distich; and the mauha, both borrowed from the Persians, and the muwashshaha, invented in Spain by Ibn Abd Rabbih. Pieces of this kind became general favourites by the novelty of their form and matter; the mawalia adopted by the dervishes, and the muwashaha was cultivated with passion and attained its perfection in Andalusia, whence was transported to the East. It cannot be denied that the Moorish poets, with all their extravagance of thought and expression were far superior in their perception of the beauties of nature and the delicacies of sentiment, to their brethren of the East, and the European reader will often discover in their poems, with some surprise, the same ideas, metaphors, and systems of versification which characterize the works of the troubadours and the early Italian poets.
"An idea borrowed from the ante-Islamic poets, and of frequent recurrence in the kasidas of later authors, is the taif al-phial (ta;i fu 'l-khiyul),or phantom. The lover journeys with a caravan through the desert; for many nights his grief at being separated from his beloved prevents him from sleeping, but at length he yields to fatique and closes his eyes. A phantom then approaches towards him, unseen by all but himself, and in it he recognises the image of his mistress, come to visit and console him. It was sent to him by the beloved, or rather it is herself in spirit, who has crossed the dreary waste and fleeted towards his couch; she, too had slept, but it was to go and see her lover in her dreams. They thus meet in spite of the foes and spies who always surround the poet, ready to betray him if he obtain an interview with the beloved and, who are so jealous, that they hinder him from sleeping, lest he should see her image in his dream; it is only when they slumber that he dare close his eyes."
"The figurative language of the Muslim poets is often difficult to be understood. The narcissus is the eye; the feeble stem of that plant bends languidly, under its flower and, thus recalls to mind the languor of the eyes. Pearls signify both tears and teeth, the latter are sometimes called hailstones, from their whiteness and moisture; the lips are cornelians or rubies; the gums a pomegranate flower; the dark foliage of the myrtle is synonymous with the black hair of the beloved, or with the first down which appears on the cheeks of youths at the period of puberty. The down itself is called the izar or head-stall of the bridle, and the curve of the izar is compared to the letters lam and nun. Ringlets trace on the cheek or neck the letter waw ; they are also called scorpions, either for their dark colour or their agitated movements; the eye is a sword the eyelids, scabbards; the whiteness of the complexion, camphor; and a mole or beauty spot, musk, which term denotes also dark hair. A mole is sometimes compared also to an ant creeping on the cheek towards the honey of the mouth; a handsome face is both a full-moon and day; black hair is night; the waist is a willow-branch, or a lance; the water of the face is self-respect; a poet sells the water of his face when he bestows mercenary praises on a rich patron devoid of every noble quality."
"Some of the verses in Arabic poetry (as in all Eastern poetry) are of a nature such as precludes translation. Had they been composed by a female on a youth whom she loved, they would seldom offer anything objectionable; but as the case is not so, they are utterly repugnant to European readers. It must not, however, be supposed that they are always the produce of a degraded passion; in many cases they were the usual expression of simple friendship and affection, or of those platonic attachments which the translated works of some Greek philosophers first taught the Moslems. Indeed, love and friendship are so closely confounded by them. that they designate both feelings by the same word, and it is not uncommon to meet epistles addressed by one aged doctor to another and containing sentiments of the strongest kind, but which are the expression of friendship only. It often happens, also, that a poet describes his mistress under the attributes of the other sex, lest he should offend that excessive prudery of Oriental feelings which, since the fourth century of Islamism, scarcely allows an allusion to women, and more particularly in poetry, and this rigidness is still carried so far, that at Cairo public singers dare not amuse their auditors with a song in which the beloved is indicated as a female. Some of those pieces have also a mystic import, as the commentators of Hafiz, Saadi, and Shebistert, have not failed to observe." (Ib., p. x.xxiii. cf seq.)
In Muhammadanism, polygamy has the express sanction of the Qur'an, and is, therefore, held to be a divine institution. Vide Suratu 'n-Nisa, or Chapter iv, 3:—
'But if ye cannot do justice between orphans, then marry what seems good to you of women, by twos, or threes, or fours: and if ye fear that ye cannot he equitable, then only one, or what your right hand possesses " (i.e. female slaves)".
Compare this with the teaching of the Talmud:-
"A man may marry many wives, for Rabba saith it in lawful to do so, if he can provide for them. Nevertheless, the wise men have given good advice, that a man should not marry more than four wives." (Arbah. Turim. Ev. Hazzer, 1.)
But although permission to indulge in polyamy is clear and numistakable, the opening verse of the Surah from which the above is taken, seems to imply some slight leaning to monogamy as the highest form of married life, for it reads thus:-
"O ye men! fear your Lord, who created it from one soul, and created therefrom its
mate, and diffused from them twain numuerous men and women."
In the Ain-i-Akbari, it is related that a certain Mujtahid, or enlightened doctor, married eighteen wives, for he rendered the Arabic word masna, "double", and read the text already quoted, "Marry whatever women you like two and two, three and three, and four and four." And in the same work it is said that another learned Maulawi married eight wives, because he read the verse—" two + three + four = nine"!
Al-Baizawi. the Jalalan, and other Sunni commentators, are all agreed that the true reading of the verse limits the number of lawful wives to four. The Shiahs also hold the same opinion, but they sanction Mut'ah, or "temporary marriages." [MU'TAH.]
In the face of the united testimony of Islam founded upon the express injunctions of the Qur'an, Syed Ameer Ali has the audacity to state in his Critical Examination of the Life and Teachings of Muhammad, p. 223, that "the greatest and most reprehensible mistake committed by Christian writers, is to suppose that Muhammad either adopted or legalised polygamy. The old idea of his having introduced it — a sign only at the ignorance of those who hold it — is by this time exploded, but the opinion that he adopted and legalised the custom is still maintained by the common masses as by many learned in Christendom. No belief can be more false"!
In his more recent work on the Personal Law of the Muhammadans, the same writer remarks "Muhammad restrained polygamy by limiting the maximum number of contemporaneous marriages, and by making absolute equity towards all obligatory on the man. It is worthy of note that the clause in the Qur'an, which contains the permission to contract four contemporaneous marriages is immediately followed by a sentence which cuts down the significance of the preceding passage to its normal and legitimate dimensions. The former passage says, - 'You may marry two, three, or four wives, but not more'. The subsequent lines declare, 'but if you cannot deal equitably and justly with all you shall marry only one.' The extreme importance of this proviso, bearing especially in mind the meaning which is attached to the word 'equity' ('adl) in the Qur'anic teachings, has not been lost sight of by the great thinkers of the Moslem world. Even so early as the third century of the era of the Hijra during the reign of al-Mamun, the first Motazalite doctors taught that the developed Quranic laws inculcated monogamy. And though the cruel persecutions of the mad bigot, Mutawwakil, prevented the general diffusion of their teachings, the conviction is gradually forcing itself on all sides, in all advanced Moslem communities, that polygamy is as much opposed to the Islamic laws as it is to this general progress of civilised society and true culture. In India especially, this idea is becoming a strong moral, If not a religions conviction, and many extraneous circumstances in combination with this growing feeling attending to root out the existence of polygamy from among the Mussulmans. A custom has grown up in that country, which is. largely followed by all classes of the community, of drawing up a marriage deed containing a formal renunciation, on the part of the future husband, of any right or semblance of right which he might possess or claim to possess to contract a second marriage during the existence of the first. This custom serves as most efficaeious check upon the growth and perpetuation of the institution of polygamy. In India more than ninety-five per of Muhammadans are at the present moment, either by conviction or necessity, monogamists. Among the educated classes, versed in the history of their ancestors, and able to compare it with the records of other nations, the custom is regarded with disapprobation, amounting almost to disgust. In Persia, according to Colonel Macgregor's statement, only two per cent of the population enjoy the questionable luxury of plurality of wives. It is earnestly to be hoped it that before long a general synod of Moslem doctors will authoritatively declare that polygamy, like slavery, is abhorrent to the laws of Islam." (Personal Law of the Muhammadanism, p. 28.)
Syud Ahmad Khan Bahadur, in his essay, Whether Islam has been beneficial or injurious to Society in general, on the contrary, defends the institution of polygamy as divine, and quotes John Milton, Mr. Davenport, and Mr. Higgins, as Christian writers who defended the practice.
The Prophet claimed considerable indulgence for himself in the matter, and married wives. [WIVES OF THE PROPEHT.]
The views of Dr. Marcus Dods in his Mohammed, Buddha, and Christ (p. 55), give an able and interesting summary of the subject:-
"The defence of polygamy has been undertaken from various points of view, and with varying degrees of insight and of earnestness. But one cannot detect much progress among its defenders. F.W. Newman has nothing to say in its favour which had not previously suggested by Voltaire: nothing, we may say, which does not occur to anyone who a to present the argument for a plurality of wives. It is somewhat, late in the day to be called upon to argue for monogamy as abstractly right. Speculators like Aristotle Econ. I.2.8), who have viewed the subject both as statesmen having a regard to what is praicticable and will conduce to social prosperity, and as philosophers reasoning from first principles, have long ago demanded for their ideal society, not only monogamy, but also that mutual respect and love, and that strict parity and modesty, which polygamy kills. Let us say briefly that the only ground conscience recognises as warranting two persons to become one in flesh is that they be, first of all, one in spirit. That absolute surrender of the person which constitutes marriage is justified only by the circumstances
that it is a surrender of the heart as well, and that it is mutual. To an ideal love, polygamy is abhorrent and impossible. As Muhammad himself, in another connection, and with more than his usual profundity, said, 'God has not put two hearts in you.' This is the grand law imbedded in our nature, and by which it is secured that the children born into the world be the fruit of the devoted surrender of one human spirit to another; by which, in other words, it is secured that love, the root principle of all human virtue and duty, be transmitted to the child and born in it. This is the, beneficent law expressed in monogamy, and this law is traversed and robbed of its effects precisely in so far as even monogamous marriages are prompted by fleshly or worldly rather than by spiritual motives. The utilitarian argument Leeky (Hist. European Morals, vol. ii. p. 295) has summed up in three sentences: Nature, by making the number of males and females nearly equal, indicates it as natural. In no other form of marriage cast the government of the family, which is one of the chief ends of marriage, be so happily sustained and in no other does the woman assume the position of the equal of man.' But we have here to do only with Mohammedan apologists, and their reasonings are somewhat perplexing: for they first maintain that nature intended us to be polygamists (see Syud Ahmad's Essay, p. 8; Syud Ameer Ali's Crit Exam. p. 225), and then, secondly, declare that the greatest and most reprehensible mistake committed by Christian writers is to suppose that Mohammed either adopted or legalized polygamy." Probably the most that be said for Mohammed in regard to this matter, is that he restricted polygamy and that its abolition was impossible and unsuitable to the population he had to do with."
"The allegation, however, that Mohammad confined polygamy within narrower limits than the Arabs had previously recognized, though true, is immaterial. For, in the first place, he restricted polygamy indeed in others, but not in his own case: and thus left upon the minds of his followers the inevitable impression that an unrestricted polygamy was the higher state of the two."
"In the second place, while he restricted the number of lawful wives, he did not restrict the number of slave-concubines. I the third place, his restriction was practically of little value, because very few men could afford to keep more than four wives. And lastly, as to the principle, he left it precisely where it was, for as Mr. Freeman justly observes (Lectures, p. 69) : 'This is one of the cases in which the first step is everything. The difference between one wife and two is everything: that between four and five thousand is comparatively nothing.'"
And in the principle be defined as at least relatively good, nothing is to be urged against this as matter of fact, although the circumstance has been overlooked, that already very many thousands of Christian Arabs had found it quite possible to live in monogamy. But that polygamy is not incompatible with a sound, if not perfectly developed morality, and with the highest tone of feeling, no one who has read the history of Israel will be disposed to deny. That it may suit a race in a certain stage of its development, and may in that stage lead to purer living and a surer moral growth than its prohibition would, may be granted. But necessarily the religion which incorporates in its code of morals such allowances, stamps itself as something short of the final religion [MARRIAGE, MUT'AH, WIVES, WOMEN.]
Arabic Qitfir or Itfir The treasurer of Egypt in the time of Joseph, and the husband of Zulaikhah. [JOSEPH.]
Arabic salat , pl. salawat. Persian namaz . pl. namazha.
Prayer is the second of the five foundations, or pillars, of practical religion in Islam, and is a devotional exercise which every Muslim is required to render to God at least five times a day, namely, at the early morning, midday, afternoon, evening, and night.
The general duty of prayer is frequently enjoined in the Qur'an, but it is remarkable that in no single passage are the five periods mentioned.
See Suratu 'r-Rum (xxx.), 17; "Glorify God when it is evening (masa') and at morning (subh), -and to Him be praise in the heavens and the earth,—and at afternoon ('ashi), and at noon-tide (zuhr)." (But all commentators are agreed that masa' includes both sunset and after sunset; and, therefore, both the Maghrib and 'Ashiyah prayers.)
Surah xi. 116: "Observe prayer at early morning, at the close of the day, and at the approach of night; for the good deeds drive away the evil deeds."
Surah xx. 130: "Put up then with what they say; and celebrate the praise of thy Loud before the sunrise, and before its setting: and some time in the night do thou praise Him, and in the extremes of the day, that thou haply mayest please Him."
Surah xvii. 80: "Observe prayer at sunset, till the first darkening of the night, and the daybreak reading-for the daybreak reading hath its witnesses', and watch unto it in the night: this shall he an excess in service."
Surah ii. 42 : "Seek aid with patience and prayer."
Surah iv. 1-4 : "When ye have fulfilled your prayer, remember God standing and sitting, and lying on your sides; and when ye are in safety, then be steadfast in prayer-. Verily prayer is for the believers prescribed and timed."
According to the Traditions, Muhammad professed to have received instructions to recite prayers five times a day, during his miraj, or ascent to heaven. The tradition runs thus.-
"The divine injunctions for prayer were
originally fifty times a day. And as I passed Moses (in heaven, during my ascent), Moses said to me, 'What have you been ordered? I replied. 'Fifty times !' Then Moses a said, Verily your people will never be able to bear it, for I tried the children of Israel with fifty times a day, but they could not manage it.' Then I returned to the Lord and asked for some remission. And ten prayers were taken off. Then I pleaded again and ten more were remitted. And so on until at last they were reduced to five times. Then I went. to Moses, and he said, ' And how many prayers have you been ordered?' And I replied 'Five.' And Moses said. ' Verily I tried the children of Israel with even five, but it did not succeed. Return to your Lord, and ask for a further remission.' But I said have asked until I am quite ashamed, and I cannot ask again.' ' (See Sahihu Muslim vol. i. p. 91.)
This Salat, or liturgical service, has thus become one of the most prominent features of the Muhammadan religion, and very numerous are the injunctions regarding it which have been handed down in the traditions. There are various minor differences amongst the numerous sects of Islam regarding the formula, but its main features are alike in all countries.
We shall describe prayer according to the Hanafi sect of Sunni Muslims.
It is absolutely necessary that the service should be performed in Arabic; and that clothes and body of the worshipper should be clean, and that the praying-place should be free from all impurity. It may be said either privately, or in company, or in a mosque — although services in a mosque are more meritorious than those elsewhere.
The stated prayers are always preceded by the ablution of the face, hands, and feet. [ABLUTION.]
At the time of public prayer, the mu'azzin, or "crier," ascends the minaret, or stands at the side of the mosque nearest the public thoroughfare, and gives the azan, or "call to prayer," as follows: -
God is great! God is great! God is great! God is great!
(The Shi'ahs add " Come to good works! ")
There is no other god but God ! "
(The Shi'ahs recite the last sentence twice.)
In the early morning the following sentence is added: "Prayers are better sleep!"
THE MU'AZZIN CALLING THE AZAN FROM A MINARET. (A.F. Hole)
When the prayers are said in a congregation or in the mosque, they begin with the Iaqmah, which is a recitation of the same words as the azan, with the addition of the sentence, "Prayers are now ready!" The
regular form of prayer then begins with the Niyah, which is said standing, with the hands on either side: -
"I have purposed to offer up to God only
with a sincere heart this morning (or, as the case may be), with my face Qiblah-wards two (or, as the cases may be) rak'ah prayers Farz (Sunnah or Nafi)."
Then follows the Takbir-i-Tairrimah, said with the thumbs touching the lobules of ears and the open hands on each side of the face:-
"God is great !"
The Qiyam, or standing position. The right hand placed upon the left, below the navel (the Shaf'is, and the two other orthodox sects, place their hands on their breasts, as also the Wahhabis; the Shiahs keep their hands on either side. In all sects the women perform the Qiyam with their hands on their breasts), and the eyes looking to the ground in self-abasement. During which is said the Subhan (the Shi'ahs omit the Subhan):-
And praise be to Thee!
Great is Thy name!
Great is Thy greatness!
There is no deity but Thee!"
The Ta'awwuz, or A'uzubillah, is then said as follows:-
"I seek refuge from God from cursed Satan."
After which the Tasmiyah is repeated:-
"In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful."
Then follows the Fatihah, viz. the first chapter of the Qur'an:-
"Praise to be God, Lord of all the worlds!
After this the worshiper can repeat as many chapters of the Qur'an as he may wish, he should, at least, recite one long or two short verses. The following chapter is usually recited, namely, the Suratu 'l-Ikhlas, or the 122th chapter:
God the Eternal!
He begetteth not,
And is not begotten,
And there is none like unto Him."
The Takbir-i-Ruku', said whilst making an inclination of the head and body and placing the hands upon the knees, separating the fingers a little.
The Tasbih-i-Ruku' said in the same posture.
"I extol the holiness of my Lord, the Great!"
The Shi'ahs here add "and with His praise." This is also added by the Shi'ahs to the Tasbih-i-Sijdah.)
"I extol the holiness of my Lord, the Great!"
"I extol the holiness of my Lord, the Great!"
The Qiyam-i-Sami' Ullah or Tasmi', said with the body erect, but, unlike the former Qiyam, the hands being placed on either side.
The Imam says aloud (when the prayers are said by a person alone, he recites both sentences):-
"God hears him who praises Him."
The people then respond in a low voice-
"O Lord, Thou are praised."
Takbir-i-Sijdah, said as the worshiper drops on his knees.
"God is great!"
The Tasbih-s-Sijdah, recited as the worshiper puts first his nose and then his forehead to the ground.
"I extol the holiness of my Lord the most High!"
Then raising his head and body and sinking backward upon his heels, and placing his hands upon his thighs, he says the Takbir-i-Jalsah (the Shi'ahs here omit the Takbir, and say instead, "I rise and sit by the power of God!"
"God is great!"
Then whilst prostrating as before, he says the Takbir-i-Sijdah.
"God is great!"
"I extol the holiness of my Lord the most High!"
The, if at the close of one rak'ah, he repeats the Takbir standing, when it is called Takbir-i-Qiyam; but at the end of two rak'ahs, and at the close of prayer, he repeats it sitting, when it is called Takbir-Qu'ud. (The Shi'ahs here recite the
Takbir: — "God it great " with the thumbs touching the lobules of the ear, and add, "I seek forgiveness from God, my Lord, and I repent before Him!"
"God is great!"
Here ends one rak'ah or form of prayer. The next rak'ah begins with the Ratihah, or 1st chapter of the Tur'an. At the close of every two rak'ahs he recites the Tahiyah
which is said whilst kneeling upon the ground. His left foot bent under him he sits upon it, and place's his hands upon his knees and says (the Shi'ahs omit the Tahiyah):—
The adorations of the tongue are for God, and also the adorations of the body, and alms-giving!"
"Peace be on thee, O Prophet, with the mercy of God and His blessing!"
"Peace be upon us and upon us and upon God's righteous servants!"
Then raising the first finger of the right hand, he recites the Tashahhud:—
"I testify that there is no deity but God (the Shi'ahs add, "who has no partner"); and I testify that Muhammad is the servant of God, and the messenger of God!
(Every two rak'ahs close with the Tashahhud. The Darud is said whilst in the same posture.)
"O God, have mercy on Muhammad and on his descendants (the Shi'ahs merely recite:"God have mercy on Muhammad and his descendents": and omit the rest), as Thou didst have mercy on Abraham and on his descendants. Thou art to be praised, and Thou art great O God, bless Muhammad and his descendants, as Thou didst bless Abraham and his descendants!"
"Thou art to be praised., and Thou art great!"
Then the Du'a:-
"O God our Lord, give us the blessings of this life, and also the blessings of life everlasting. Save us from the torments of fire."
(The Du'a is omitted by the Shi'ahs, who recite the following instead; "Peace be on thee, O Prophet, with the mercy of God and his blessing!, Peace be upon us, and upon God's righteous servants!"
He then closes with the Salam.
Turning the head round to the right; he says:-
"The peace you and mercy of God be with you".
He then closes with the Salam.
Turning the head round to the left; he says:-
"The peace you and mercy of God be with you".
At the close of the whole set of prayers, that is of Farz, Sunnah, Nafl, or Witr, the worshiper raises his hands and offers up a Munajat, or "supplication". This usually
consists of prayers selected from the Qur'an or Hadis. They ought to be said in Arabic, although they are frequently offered up in the vernacular.
Such supplications were highly commended by Muhammad, who is related to have said:-
"Supplication is the marrow of worship."
"There is nothing better before God than supplication."
"Supplicate God when ye are certain of its approval, and know that God accepts not the supplication of a negligent heart."
"Verily your Lord is ashamed of his servants when they raise up their hands to Him in supplication and return empty."
These daily prayers are either Farz, Sunnah, Nafl, or Witr. Farz, are those rak'ahs (or forms of prayer), said to be enjoined by God. Sunnah, those founded on the practice of Muhammad. Nafl, the voluntary performance of two rak'ahs or more, which may be omitted without sin. Witr, an off number of rak'ahs, either one, three, five, or seven, said after the night prayer. These divisions of prayer are entirely distinct from each other. They each begin afresh with the Niyah, and worshipers may rest for awhile between them, but not converse on worldly subjects. The Wahhabis think it correct to say the Sunnah prayers in their houses and only the Farz prayers in the mosque.
The five times of prayer are known as Zuhr, 'Asr, Maghrib, Isha', and Fajq. There are also three voluntary periods called Ishraq, Zuha, and Tahajjud.
The following is a table showing the exact number of rak'ahs to be preformed at each service:-
According to the above table, a devout Muslim recites the same form of prayer at least seventy five times in the day.
Abdu 'llah ibn 'Umar relates that the Prophet said, "The time for Zuhr prayers begins from the inclination of the sun towards the west and closes at the time when the shadow of a person shall be the length of his own stature, which time marks the beginning of the 'Asr prayers, and, the time of the 'Asr prayers is from that time till the sun assumes a yellow appearance. The time of Maghrib prayers is from sunset as long as the red appearance in the horizon remains. The time of 'Isha prayers is from that time till midnight. And the time of the Fajr prayers is from the break of day till the sun rises. Therefore, when the sun has risen you must not recite the morning prayer for the sun rises between the horns of the devil.' (Mishkat book iv. ch ii.)
It is the ordinary custom of Muslims to say their prayers with their feet uncovered, out strictly according to the Traditions it is lawful to cover the feet with boots or shoes during prayer, provided they are free from impurity.
Shaddad ibn Aus relates that Muhammad said, "Act the reverse of the Jews in your prayer, for they do not pray in boots and shoes,"
Abu Sa'id al-Khudri relates that "the Prophet said prayers with his companions, and all on a sudden took off his shoes, and put them down on his left side, and when the people observed it, they took off theirs also; and when the Prophet had finished the prayers, he said, 'What caused you to take off your shoes? They replied, We did so in order to follow your example. And the Prophet said, 'Verily Gabriel came to me and told me there was a little filth upon my shoes; therefore, when any one of you goes into a Masjid, look well at your shoes first; and if you perceive any dirt, wipe it off, and then say your prayers in them.' (Mishkat, book iv ch. ix. p. 2.)
Any wandering of the eyes, or of the mind, a coughing or the like, answering a question, or any action not prescribed to be performed, must be strictly avoided (unless it is between the Sunnah prayers and the fars, or be difficult to avoid for it is held allowable to make three alight irregular motions, or deviations from correct deportment); otherwise, the worshipper must begin again and recite his prayers with due reverence.
If a person arrive late, he merely recites the Niyah and Takbir, and then joins the congregation in that part of the service in which they are engaged.
The Muslim may say his five daily prayers in his home, or shop, or in the street or road, but there are said to be special blessings attending prayer recited in a congregation.
In addition to the daily prayers, the following are special services for special occasions:-
Salatu 'l-Jum'ah—" The Friday Prayer." It consists of two rak'ahs after the daily meridian prayer.
Salatu 'l-Musa fir - "Prayers for a traveller." Two rak'ahs instead of the usual number at the meridian, afternoon, and night prayers.
Salatu 'l-Khauf."The prayers of fear" Said in time of war. They are two rak'ahs recited first by one regiment or company and then by the other.
Salatu '1-Tariwih. — Twenty rak'ahs recited every evening during the Ramazan, immediately after the fifth daily prayer.
Salatu '1-Istikharah. - Prayers for success or guidance. The person who, is about to undertake any special business performs two rak'ah prayers and then goes to sleep. During his slumbers he may expect to have "ilham," or inspiration, as to the undertaking for which he seeks guidance!
Salatu '1-Khusuf. — Two rak'ahs said at the time of an eclipse of the moon.
Salatu 'l-Kusuf. —Two rak'ahs said at the time of an eclipse of the sun.
Salatu '1-Istisqa. — Prayer in time of drought, consisting of two rak'ahs.
Salatu 'l-Janazah. — Prayers at a funeral. [JANAZAH.]
'The liturgical Service of the Muslim is not given in the Qur'an, but is founded upon very minute instructions given by the Prophet, and which are recorded in the Traditions, and for which the Arabic scholar can refer to Sahihu 'l-Bukari, vol. i. p. 50; Sahihu Muslim, vol. i. p. 164 ; Sunanu 't-Tirmizi, p.: 22; Sunanu Abu Da'ud, p. 56: Sunanu Muwatta', p. 50; and the English reader to Matthew's Mishkat, book iv.
The following are selections from the sayings of Muhammad with reference to the Liturgical prayers (vide Mishkat, book iv.):—
"That which leads a creature into infidelity is neglect of prayers."
"Not one of you must say your prayers in a garment without covering your whole body."
"God accepts not the prayers of a woman arrived at puberty unless she covers her head."
"People must not lift up their eyes whilst saving their prayers, or they will become blind."
"The prayers which are said in congregation increase the rewards of those said alone by twenty seven degrees." [MOSQUE.]
"The five stated prayers erase, the sins which have been committed during the intervals between them, if they have not been mortal sins."
"That prayer preparatory to which the teeth shall have been cleaned with the Miswak is more excellent than the prayer without Miswak by seventy." [MISWAK.]
"The prayers of a person will not be accepted who has broken his ablution until he completes another ablution."
"That person who leaves even one hair without washing after uncleanness, will be punished in hell accordingly."
When any one of you stands up for
prayer, he must not smooth the ground by wiping away pebbles, because the compassion of God descends upon him at that time."
"Order your children to say the stated prayers when they are seven years of age, and beat them if they do not do so when they are ten years old; and when they reach ten years, divide their beds."
"When you stand up to prayer, spit not in front, because you are then in God's presence; neither spit on your right side, because an angel is there. Spit, therefore either on your left side or under your feet, and then throw earth over it."
"Whoever says twelve rak'ahs of Sunnah prayers in the day and night will have a house built for him in Paradise: four rak'ahs before the noon-day prayer and two rak'ahs after it, and two after sunset prayer, and two rak'ahs after evening prayer, and two before morning prayer."
"' Tell me if any one of you had a rivulet before his door and bathed five times a day in it, whether any dirt would remain. upon his body.' The Companions said, Nothing would remain. The Prophet said, In this manner will the five daily prayers as ordered by God erase all little sins.'"
"When any one of you says his prayers, he must have something in front of him, but if he cannot find anything for that purpose, he must put his walking-stick into the ground; but if the ground be hard, then let him place it lengthways in front of him; but if he has no staff, he must draw a line on the ground, after which there will be no detriment in the prayers from anyone passing in front of it." [SUTRAH.]
"The best prayers for God were those of David the prophet, and the best fast are his also. David used to sleep half the night and would be woke, and in prayer a third part of the night and would fast one day and eat another."
The form of prayer, or rak'ahs,. Are given above, admit of no variations whether they, are used in private or public, and consequently, notwithstanding the beauty of its devotional language, it is simply a superstitions act, having very little in common with the Christian idea of prayer.
We translate the Arabic Salat, and the Persian Namaz by the English word prayer, although this "second foundation" of the religion of Muhammad is something quite distinct from that prayer which the Christian poet so well describes as the "soul's sincere desire uttered or unexpressed." It would be correct to speak of the Muhammadan Salat as a service: a "prayer" being more correctly rendered by the Arabic du'a'. In Islam, prayer is reduced to a mechanical act, as distinct from a mental act; and in judging of the spiritual character of Muhammadanism, we must take into careful consideration the precise character of that devotional service which every Muslim is required to render to God at least five times a day, and which undoubtedly, exercises so great an influence. upon the character of the followers of Muhammad.
The devotions of Islam are essentially "vain repetitions," for they must be said in the Arabic language, and admit of no change or variety. The effect of such a constant round of devotional forms, which are but the service of the lips, on the vast majority of Muhammadans, can be easily imagined The absence of anything like true devotion from these services accounts for the fact that religion and true piety stand so far apart in the practice of Islam.
The late Dean Stanley remarks (Eastern Church, p 279) "The ceremonial character of the religion of Musalmans is, in spite of its simplicity, carried to a pitch beyond the utmost, demands either of Rome or of Russia.. Prayer is reduced to a mechanical act as distinct from a mental act, beyond any ritual observances in the West. It is striking to see the figures along the banks of the Nile going through their prostrations, at the rising of the sun, with the uniformity and regularity of clockwork, but it resembles the worship of machines rather than of reasonable beings."
PRAYERS FOR THE DEAD.
According to the teaching of Muhammad, it is the duty of all true Muslims to pray for, the dead (Durru 'l-Mukhtar, p 185) See also Mishkat book v chap iii.
"God most certainly exalts the degree of a virtuous servant in Paradise, and the virtuous servant says, 'O my Lord, from whence is this exalted degree for me?' and God says 'It is on account of your children asking pardon for you.'"
"The Prophet passed by graves in al-Madinah and turned his face towards them, and said, 'Peace be to you, O inhabitants of the graves! May God forgive us and you. Ye have passed on before us, and we are following you."
"A dead person in the grave is like one over his head in water, who calls to somebody to take him by the hand. For he has hope that his father or mother, or his brother, or his friend will pray for him. For when the prayer reaches the dead person it is more esteemed by him than the whole world, and all that is in it; and verily God most certainly gives to the dead, on account of the prayers of the people of the earth rewards like mountains, for verily the offerings of the living for the dead are asking forgiveness for them."
Surah lxxi. 29: "And Noah said, O my God, forgive me and my parents"
Surah ix 114, 115 "It is not for the Prophet to pray for the forgiveness of those, who, even though they be near of kin, associate other gods with God after it hath been made clear to them that they are to be the inmates of hell. For neither did Abraham ask forgiveness for his father, but in pursuance of a promise which he had promised him, and when it was shown him that he was an enemy of God, he declared himself clear of him vet Abraham was pitiful and kind."
It is related in the Traditions that the Prophet visited his mother's grave, and wept in such a way as to cause those who were standing around him to weep also. And the Prophet said, "I have asked my benefactor permission to ask pardon for my mother, which was not granted then. I asked my Lord's permission to visit her grave and it was granted, therefore do ye visit graves, because they remind you of death."
Preaching. There are four words generally used for a preacher: khatib , mazakkir , wanz and nasih .
Khatib is always applied to the official who recites the khutbab, or oration, in the Friday service. The other three terms are applied generally to preachers.
In the present day, preaching seldom takes place in a mosque except on Fridays, when the khutbah is recited, although it is not forbidden, and Muhammad was frequently in the habit of addressing his people after prayers were over.
No Maulawi of reputation preaches in the street, but paid preachers sometimes undertake the office.
Arabic qadar , the word generally used in the Hadis; taqdir the word usually employed in theological works. Expressions which mean "measuring out," or "preordering"
Taqdir, or the absolute decree of good and evil, is the sixth article of the Muhammadan creed, and the orthodox believe that whatever has, or shall come to pass in this world, whether it be good or bad, proceeds entirely from the Divine Will, and has been irrevocably fixed and recorded on a preserved table by the pen of fate. The doctrine, which forms a very important feature in the Muslim system, is thus taught in the Qur'an :—
Surah liv. 49: "All things have been created after fixed decree" (qadar).
Surah iii. 139: "No one can die except by God's permission according to the book that fixeth the term of life."
Sürah lxxxvii. 2: "The Lord hath created and balanced all things and hath fixed their destinies and guided them."
Surah viii. 17: "God slow them, and those shafts were God's, not thine."
Surah ix. 51: "By no means can aught befall us but what God has destined for us."
Surah xiii. 30: "All sovereignty is in the hands of God."
Surah xiv. 4:" God misleadeth whom He will, and whom He will He guideth."
Surah xviii. 101: "The infidels whose eyes were veiled from my warning and had no power to hear."
The teaching of Muhammad, as given in the Traditions handed down by al-Bukhari and Muslim, is as follows :—
"God created Adam, and touched his back with his right hand, and brought forth from it a family; and God said to Adam, 'I have created this family for Paradise, and their actions will be like unto those of the people of Paradise.' Then God touched the back of Adam, and brought. forth another family, an said,' I have created this for hell, and their actions will be like unto those of the people of hell.' Then a man said to the Prophet, 'Of what use will deeds of any kind be?' He said, 'When God createth His servant for Paradise, his actions will be deserving of it until he die, when he will enter therein; and when God createth one for the fire. His actions will be like those of the people of hell till he die, when he will enter therein."
"'There is not one, amongst you whose place is not written by God, whether in the fire or in Paradise.' The Companions said, 'O Prophet! since God hath appointed our places, may we confide in this and abandon our religious and moral duties?' He said, 'No; because the righteous will do good works and the wicked will do bad works.' After which the Prophet read this verse from the Qur'an: 'To him who, giveth alms, and feareth God, and yieldeth assent to the excellent creed, to him will we make easy the path to happiness. But to him who is worldly and is indifferent, and who does not believe in the excellent creed, to him will we make easy the path of misery.'"
"The first thing which God created was a pen, and He said to it 'Write' ; it said,' What shall I write?' And God said, 'Write down the quantity of every individual thing to be created,' and it wrote all that was and that will be, to eternity."
"God hath preordained five things on his servants; the duration of life, their actions, their dwelling-places, their travels, and their portions."
"When God. hath ordered a creature to die in any particular place, he causeth his wants to direct him to that."
"There is not one born but is created to Islam, but it is their fathers and mothers who make them Jews and Christians and Majusi."
"It was said, 'O Prophet of God! inform me respecting charms, and the medicines which I swallow, and the shields which I make use of for protection, whether they prevent any of the decrees of God?' Muhammad said, 'These also are by the decree of God."
"Verily God created Adam from a handful of earth, taken from all parts, and the children of Adam became different, like the earth; some of them red, some white, and some black, some between red, white and black, some gentle, and some severe, some impure and some pure."
"The Prophet of God was asked about the children of polytheists who might die in their infancy, whether they would go to heaven or hell. He said, 'God knoweth best what their actions would have been had they lived; it depends on this.'"
"The Prophet of God came out of his
house when the Companions were debating about fate, and. he was angry, and became red in the face, to such a degree that you could say the seeds of a pomegranate had been bruised on it. And he said, 'Hath God ordered you to debate of fate? Was I sent to you for this? Your forefathers were destroyed for, debating about fate and destiny; I adjure you not to argue on those points."
(See Ahadizu 'l-Bukhari and Muslim, in loco) [PRESERVED TABLET.]
The doctrine is expressed in an Arabic treatise on the subject, as follows : —
"Faith In the decrees of God, is that we believe in our heart and confess with our tongue that the Most High God hath decreed all things; so that nothing. can happen in the world, whether it respects the conditions and operations of things, or good or evil, or obedience and disobedience, or faith and infidelity, or sickness and health, or riches and poverty, or life and death, that is not contained in the written tablet of the decrees of God. But God hath so decreed good works, obedience, and faith, that He ordains and. wills them, and that they may be under His decree, His salutary direction, His good pleasure and command. On the contrary, God hath decreed, and does ordain and determine evil, disobedience and infidelity; yet without His salutary direction, good pleasure, and command; but being Only by way of seduction, indignation, and prohibition. That whosoever shall say that God is not delighted with good faith, or that God hath not an indignation against evil and unbelief, he is certainly an infidels."
The Rev. E. Sell, in his Faith of Islam, page 178, says:— "There are three well-defined schools of thought on the subject.
"First—The Jabrians (Jabariyun), so called from 'the word "jabr" compulsion, deny all. free agency in man and say that man is necessarily constrained by the force of God's eternal and immutable decree to, act as he does. 'They hold that as God is the absolute Lord, He can, if He so wills, admit all men into Paradise, or, cast all into hell. This sect is one of the branches of the Ash'a-rians with whom on mast points they agree.
"Secondly.-—The Qadrians (Qadariyuns), who deny Al-Qadr, or God's absolute decree, say that evil and injustice ought not to be attributed to man, who is altogether a free agent. God has given him the power to do or not to do an act. This sect generally considered to be a branch of the Mutazilite body (Mu'tazilah), though in reality it existed before. Wasil quitted the school his master Hasan. As Wasil,. however, followed the opinions of Mabad-al-Johni, the leading Qadrian divine, the Mutazilites and Qadrians are practically one and the same."
"Thirdly.— The Ashi'arians maintain that God has one eternal will which is applied to whatsoevor He willeth, both of His own actions and those of men; that He willeth that which He knoweth and what is written on the preserved table; that He willeth both good and evil. So far they agree with the Jabrians but then they seem to allow some power to man. The orthodox, or Sunni belief is theoretically Ash'arian, but practically the Sunnis are continued Jabrians. The Mutzilite doctrines are looked upon as quite heretical."
"No subject has been more warmly discussed in Islam than that of predestination. The following abstract of some lengthy discussions will present the points of difference."
"The Ash'arians, who in this matter represent in the main orthodox views, formulate their objections to the Mutazilite system thus:-
"(i.) If man is the causer of an action by the force of his own will, then he should also have the power of controlling the result of that action."
"(ii.) If it be granted that man has the power to originate an act, it is necessary that he should know all acts, because a creator should be independent in act and choice. Intention must be conditioned by knowledge. To this the Mutazilites well reply that a man need not know the length of a road before he walks, or the structure of the throat before he talks."
"(iii.) Suppose a man wills to move his body and God at the same time wills it to be steady, then if both intentions come to pass there will be a collection of opposites; if neither, a removal of opposites; if the exaltation of the first, an. unreasonable preference."
"(iv.) If man can create an act, some of the works will be better than some of the works of God, e.g. a man determines, to have faith: now faith is a better thing than reptiles, which are created by God;"
"(v.) If man is free to act, why can he not make at once a human body; why does he need to thank God for grace and faith?"
"(vi.) But better, far than all argument, the orthodox say, is the testimony of the Book. 'All things have we created under a fixed decree.' (Sura liv. 49,) 'When God created you and that ye make.' (Sura xxxvii. 94.) Some of them there were whom God guided and there were others decreed to err.' (Sura xvi. 88.) As God decrees faith and obedience He must be the causer of it, for 'on the hearts of these hath God graven the Faith.' (Sura lviii.. 22.) 'It is he who causeth you to laugh and weep, to die and make alive' (Sura liii. 44.) 'If God pleased He would surely bring them, one and all, to the guidance.' (Sura vi. 36.) 'Had God pleased, He had guided you all aright.' (Sura vi. 160.) 'Had the Lord pleased, He would have made mankind of one religion.' (Sura xi. 120.) 'God will mislead whom He pleaseth, and whom He pleaseth He will place upon the straight path.' (Sura vi. 39.) Tradition records that the Prophet said. 'God is the maker of all makers and of their actions."
"The Mutazilites took up the opposite side of this great question and said:—
"(i) If man has no power to will or to do then what is the difference between praising
God and sinning against Him; between faith and infidelity; good and evil; what is the use of commands and prohibitions; rewards and punishments; promises and threats; what is the use of prophets, books, &c.
"(ii) Some acts of men are bad, such as tyranny and polytheism. If these are created by God, it follows that to tyrannise and to ascribe plurality to the Deity is to render obedience. To this the Ash’arians reply that orders, are of two kinds, immediate and mediate. The former, which they call 'Amr-i-akwini,’ is the order, ’Be and it. was.’ This comprehends all existences and according to it; whatever is. ordered must come to pass. The latter they call 'Amr-i-tasbri’i,’ an order given in the Law. This comes to men through prophets and. thus is to be obeyed. True obedience is to act according to that which is revealed, not according to the secret intention of God, for that we know not.
"(iii.) If God decrees the acts of men, He should hear the name of that which he decrees. Thug, the causer of infidelity is an infidel; of tyranny a tyrant, and so on; but to speak thus of God is blasphemy.
"(iv.) Infidelity is decreed by God He must wish it; but a prophet desires faith and obedience and so is opposed to God. To this the orthodox reply, that God knows by His eternal knowledge that such a man will die an infidel. If a prophet intends by bringing the message of salvation to such an one to make God’s knowledge become ignorance, lie would be doing wrong; but is he does not know the secret decrees of God, his duty is to deliver his message according to the Hadis; 'A prophet has only to deliver the clear message.’"
"(v.) The Mutazilites claimed as on their side all verses of the Qur’an, in which the words to do,. to construct, to renew, to create, are applied to men. Such are the verses:
'Whatever is in the heavens and the earth is God’s that He may reward those who do evil according to their deeds: and those who do good will He reward with good things.’ (Sura liii 82.) 'Whoso shall have wrought evil shall not be recompensed but with its like: but whoso shall have done the things that are right. whether male or female and is a believer, these shall enter Paradise.’ (Sura xl. 48.) 'Say the truth me from the Lord; let him them who will, believe; and let him who will, be an infidel.’ (Sura xviii. 28.) 'Those who add good to God will say: 'If God had pleased neither we nor our fathers had given Him companions.’ 'Say Verily ye follow only a conceit., ye utter lies." (Sura vi. 149.) The Hadis is also very plain. 'All good is in Thy hands and evil is not to thee.’"
"The Ash’arians have one famous text which they bring to bear against all this reasoning and evicenc. It is; 'This truly is a warning and whoso willeth, taketh the way of his Lord; but will it ye shall not, unless God will it, for God is knowing, wise.’ (Sura lxxvi, 29, 30.) To the Hadis they reply (1) that there is a difference between acquiescence in evil and decreeing it. Thus the expression 'God willet not tyraany for His servants,' does not mean that God hath not decreed it, but that tyranny is not one of His attributes; so evil is not to Thee means it is not an attribute of God; and (2) the Hadis must be explained in accordance with the teaching of the Qur'an.
'The Muslim philosophers tried to find a way out of the difficulty. Averroes says: We are free to act in this way or that, but our will is always determined by some exterior cause. For example, we see something which pleases us, we are drawn to it in spite of ourselves. Our will is thus bound by exterior causes. Those causes exist according to certain order of things which is founded on the general laws of nature. God alone knows beforehand the necessary connection which to us is a mystery. The connection of our will with exterior causes in determined by the laws of nature. It is this which in theoogy we call, 'decrees and predestination.'"
(Mélanges de Philosophie Juive et Arabe, par S. Munk, p. 458.)
Arabic Shuf'ah. Lit. "Adjunction." The right of pre-emption is a power of poseessing property which is for sale, and is established upon the teaching of Muhammad. It applies not to movable property but to immovable property (aqar). This right of pre-emption appertains in the first place to the co-sharer or partner in the property; secondly, to a sharer in the immunities and appendages of the property such as the right to water, or to roads; and thirdly, to the neighbour. (Hidayah, vol. iii. p. 594.)
PRE-EXISTENCE OF SOULS.
Is taught both in the Qur'an and the Traditions.
'Ayishah relates that Muhammad said, "Souls before they became united with bodies were like assembled armies, and afterwards were dispersed and sent into the bodies of mankind." (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. xvi.)
There is said to be a reference to this doctrine in the Qur'an:-
Surah vii. 171: "And when the Lord drew forth their posterity from the loins of the sons of Adam...."
The commentator, al-Baizawi, says God stroked Adam's back and extracted from his loins his whole posterity, which should come into the world until the Resurrection one generation after another ; and that these souls were all assembled together like small ants, and after they had in the presence of the angels confessed their dependence upon God, they were again caused to return into the loins of Adam," (See Tafsiru 'l-Baizawi, in loco.)
According to the reaching of Muhammad, both the actions of men and the Qur'an were recorded before creation upon a preserved tablet called Lauh Mahfuz , Surah xxxv. 22:
And if they treat thee as a liar, as did those
who were before them treat their Apostles who came to them with the proofs of their mission, and with the Scriptures and with the clear Book" and Imam Mubin . Surah xxxvi. 11; "Verily, it is We who will quicken the dead, and write down the works which they have sent on before them, and the traces which they shall have left behind them; and everything have we set down in the clear Book of our decrees. [PREDESTINATION, QURAN.]
Arabic kibr , is forbidden in the Qur’an, See Surah xvii. 39: "Walk not proudly on the earth ; truly thou canst by no means cleave the earth, neither canst thou reach the mountains in height; this is evil with thy Lord and odious."
There is no sacerdotal class of ministers in the Muhammadan religion. The leader of the daily prayers is called an Imam. [IMAM.]
PRIVACY OF DWELLINGS.
Is established by the teaching of Muhammad, and it is therefore unlawful to enter the house without Isti’zun, or "asking permission." The injunction is given in the Qur’an Surah xxiv. 27-29:-
"O ye who believe! enter not into other houses, than your own, until ye have asked leave, and have saluted its inmates. This will be best for you: haply ye will bear this in mind. And if ye find no one therein, then enter it not till leave be given you; and if it be said to you, 'Go ye back,’ then go ye back. This will, be more blameless in you, and God knoweth what ye do. There shall be no harm in your entering houses in which no dwelleth, for the supply of your needs; and God knoweth what ye do openly and what ye hide."
'Atu ibn Yasar relates that "A man once asked the Prophet, 'Must I ask leave to go into the room of my mother?’ The Prophet said, 'Yes’ Then the man said, 'But I live in the same home.’ The man said, 'But I wait upon her!’ The Prophet said, 'Yes, even if you live in the same home.’ The man said,’ But I wait upon her!’ The Prophet said, 'But you must ask permission; for, what! would you like to see your mother naked?’"
It is further related that Muhammad always went first to the right and then to the left of a door which had no curtain, and salamed several times before he entered. (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. ii)
This has become an established rule in the east, and it is considered very rude to enter any dwelling without first giving notice.
PROHIBITED DEGREES OF MARRIAGE.
According to the Qur’an they are seven: 1, mother; 2, daughter; 3, Sister; 4, paternal aunt; 5, maternal aunt; 6, sister’s daughter: 7, brother’s daughter. And the same with regard to the other sex. It is also unlawful for a Muslim to marry his wife’s sister (see Lev. xviii. 18) or his wif&s aunt during the lifetime of his wife. Foster-age in Muslim law established relationship. and therefore a foster-sister or a foster-brother is unlawful in marriage. [MARRIAGE.]
The Arabic words used to express the prophetic office are nabi pl ambiya; rasul , pl. rursul and marsal , p1. mursalun. In Persian, the three titles are invariably translated by the word paighambar (i.e. a messenger).
Nabi is the Hebrew naabi which Gesenius says means "one who bubbles forth" as a fountain. The Arabic lexicon, the Qamus, derives the word from nubu, "to be exalted".
According to Muhammadan writers a nabi is anyone directly inspired by God, and rusul and mursal, one to whom a special mission has been entrusted.
Muhammad is related to have said (Mishkat, book. xxiv. ch. 1. pt. 3) that there were 124,000 ambiya, or prophet, and 315 apostles or messengers. Nine ot these special messengers are entitled U1u 'l-’Azm, or possessors of constancy, namely, Noah. Abraham, David, Jacob, Joseph, Job, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. Six are dignified with special titles: Adam, Satiyu 'llah, the Chosen of God; Noah, Nabiyu 'llah, the Preacher of God, Abraham, Khalilu 'llah, the Friend of God, Moses, Kalimu 'llah, the Converser with God; Jesus, Ruhu 'llah, the Spirit of God; Muhammad, Rasulu 'llah, the Messenger of God.
The number of sacred books delivered to mankind is said to have been 104 (see Majalisu 'l-Abrar p. 55); of these, ten were given to Adam, fifty to Seth (a name not mentioned in the Qur’an), thirty to Enoch ten: to Abraham, the Taurat to Moses; the Zabur to David; the Injil to Jesus, and the Qur’an to Muhammad.
The one hundred scriptures given to Adam, Seth, Enoch, and Abraham are termed sahifah (a pamphlet), and the other four Kitab (a book); but all that is necessary for the Muslim to know of these inspired records is supposed to have been retained in the Qur’an.
Muhammad’s enumeration of the Old and New Testament prophets, both as to name and chronological order, is exceedingly confused, and it is acknowledged to be a matter of doubt amongst Muslim commentators whether or not Alexander the Great and Aesop were inspired prophets.
The names of twenty-eight prophets are said to occur in the Qur’an.
Adam, Adam; Idris, Enoch; Nuh, Noah; Hud Heber?; Salih, Methusaleh; Ibrahim, Abraham; Ismai1, Ishmae1, Ishaq Isaac, Ya’qub, Jacob, Yusuf, Joseph, Lut, Lot; Musa, Moses, Harun, Aaron; Shu’aib, Jethro?, Zakariya, ' Zacharias, the father of John the Baptist; Yahya, John Baptist, 'Isa, Jesus, Da’ud, David; Sulaiman, Solomon; Ilyas, Elias Alyasa, Elisha; Aiyub, Job: Yunus, Jonah; ’Uzair, Ezra; Luqman, Aesop? more likely Balaam?, Zu 'l-Kifl, Isaiah or Obadiah?, Zu 'l-Qarnain, Alexander the Great.
An account of these prophets will be found under their respective names.
A Persian book, entitled the Qisasu 'l-Ambiyi', the "Tales of the Prophets," professes to give an account of the prophets mentioned in the Qur'an, but the utter the recklessness of the writer passes all description; for example, it is a matter of uncertainty whether Zu 'l-Qarnain is Alexander the Great or some celebrity who lived in the days of Abraham!
It is said that only three women have been prophetesses: Sarah, the mother of Moses, and Mary, the daughter of 'Imran; for Sarah received by revelation the news of Isaac's birth, the birth of Moses was divinely communicated to his mother, and Mary received from an angel the happy tidings of the birth of Jesus. (See Hist. of Temple of Jerusalem, translated from the Arabic.)
PSALMS OF DAVID, The.
Arabic bulugh bulughiyat The puberty of a boy is established as soon as the usual signs of manhood are known to exist; but if none of these signs exist, his puberty is not clearly established until he have completed his eighteenth year. The puberty of a girl is established in the same way; but if the usual signs of womanhood are known not to exist, her puberty is not established until her seventeenth year has been completed. This is according to the teaching of the Imam Abu Hanifah. But his two disciples maintain that upon either a boy or girl completing the fifteenth year, they are to be declared adult. The Imam ash-Shafi'i concurs in this opinion, and it is said there is also a report of Abu Hanifah to the same effect. The earliest period of puberty with respect to boy is twelve years, and with respect to girl nine years.
When a boy or girl approaches the age puberty and they declare themselves adult, their declaration must be credited and they then become subject to all the laws affecting adults, and must observe all the ordinances the Muslim faith. (Hidayah, Hamilton's Translation, vol. iii. p. 488; Jamiu 'r-Rumuz, Durru 'l-Mukhtar.) Syed Ameer Ali says:-
The validity of marriages contracted for minors by any guardian other than the father or the grandfather, is not established until ratified by the parties on arriving at puberty. Such ratification in the case of males must be express, and in the case of females may be either express or implied. On arriving at puberty, both the parties have the right of either ratifyzng the contract entered into during their minority or of cancelling it. According to the Sunnis, in order to effect a dissolution of the matrimonial tie, in exercise of the right of option reserved to the parties, it is necessary that there should be a decree of the judge; and until such decree is made, the marriage remains intact. If before, a decree has been obtained one of the parties should die, the survivor would be entitled to inherit from the deceased.
"The Shiahs differ materially from the Sunnis on this. They hold that a marriage contracted on behalf of minors by any unauthorised person (fazuli), i.e. any person other than a father or a grandfather, remains in absolute suspension on abeyance until as assented to by the parties on arriving at puberty; that, in fact, no legal effect arises from it until such ratification, and if in the interval previous to ratification, one of the parties should die, the contract would fall to the ground and there would be no right of inheritance in the survivor" (Personal Law of the Mahommedans, p. 269.)
The pulpit or mimbar , used for the recital of the kutbah on Fridays in the chief mosque is usually a wooden structure of three steps and movable, but in the large mosques of Turkey and Egypt it is a fixture of brick or stone.
It is related that the Prophet, when addressing the people, stood on the uttermost step, Abu Bakr on the second, and 'Umar on
the third or lowest. 'Usman being the most humble of men, would gladly have descended lower, but this being impossible, he fixed upon the second step, from which it is now usual to recite tho khutbah on Fridays and on the two great festivals [MOSQUE, MIMBAR.]
is divided into three classes (1) Hadd , (2) Qisas , (3) Ta'zib (1) Hadd , pl. Hudud (lit. "That which is defined"), is that punishment the limits of which have been defined in hte Qur'an and Hadis. The following belong to this class:-
(a) Adultery, zina , for which the adulterer must be stoned, rajm (Mishkat, book xv. ch. 1.)
(b) Fornication, zina , for which the guilty persons must receive one hundred stripes. (Qur'an, Surah xxiv. 2.)
(c) The false accusation of a married person with adultery qazf , for which
the offender must receive eighty stripes (Qur'an, Surah xxiv. 4.)
(d) Apostacy, irtidad , which is punishable with death. (Mishkat, book xiv. ch. v.)
(e) Drinking wine, sharb for which the offender must receive eighty lashes. (Mishkat, book xv. ch. iv.)
(f) Theft, sarqah which is punished by cutting off the right hand. (Qur'an, Surah v. 42)
(g) Highway robbery, qat'u 't-tariq ; for robbery only, the loss of hands and feet, and for robbery with murder, death either by the sword or crucifixion. :(Qur'an Surah v, 37.)
(2) Qisas , lit. "retaliation," is a punishment which, although fixed by the law, can be remitted by the person offended against or, in the ease of a murdered person, by his heirs. It is applicable to cases of murder and of wounding. Qisas is the lex talionis of Moses: "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe (Exodus xxi. 24); but in allowing money compensation, Muhammad departs from the Jewish Code. (Qur'an, Surah ii. 173.)
(3) Ta'zib , is the punishment which is left to the discretion of the Qazi or Judge [HADD, QISAS, TA'ZIB.]
PUNISHMENTS OF THE GRAVE.
Arabic taharah . The legal methods of purification under the Muhammadan law vary but slightly from those which were enjoined in the Talmudic law of the Jews; with the remarkable difference that whilst with the Muslim the simple act of purification suffices, the Jew was taught by the use of expiatory offering to discern to its full extent the connection between the outward sign and the inward fount of impurity.
The most minute regulations with reference to the subject of legal purification were laid down in the Jewish law, and are found in a treatise, of the Mishna. entitled Yadaim. See also Leviticus xv.
The following are the different acts of purification existing in Muhammadan law : —
1. Ghusl . The 'washing of the whole body to absolve it from uncleanlineas and to prepare it for the exercise of prayer, after the following acts: pollutio nocturna, menses, coitus, puerperium. [GHUSL.]
2. Ghusl-masnun . Such washings of the whole body as are founded upon the sunnah or practice and precept of Muhammad, although they are not supposed to be of divine institution, namely, upon the admission of a convert to Islam, before the Friday prayer, on the festivals; after washing the dead; and after blood-letting. [GHUSL MASNUN.]
3. Wazu' , or the simple ablution of hands, arms, ears, face, mouth, &&., before the recital of the usual prayers. [ABLUTION.]
4. Tayyammum , or the use of sand or dust instead of water for .the wazu'. [TAYAMMUM.]
5. Istinfa the abstersion of the private parts. [ISTINJA'.]
6. Miswak , or the cleansing. of the teeth. [MISWAK.]
7. Mash ,or the touching of the boots whereby they become purified for prayer. [MASAH.]
8. Tathir , or the cleansing of vessels, articles of clothing, &c, from impurity, which is generally done by applying either water, or sand and dust, the mere sprinkling being sufficient. [TATHIR.]
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