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DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.
A term used by the Sufi mystics for those portions of matter (hayula) which God has distributed in creation ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dict. Of Sufi Terms.)
"Set forth to them the instance of the people of the city (i.e. Antioch) when the Sent Ones came to it."
"When we sent two (i.e. John and Jude)
unto them and they charged them both with imposture - therefore with a third (i.e. Simon Peter) we strengthened them; and they said 'Verily we are Sent unot you of God.
Al-Baizawi, the commentator, says the people of the City of Antioch were idolaters and that Jesus sent two of his disciples, Yahya and Yunas (John and Jude) to preach to them. And when they arrived, they met Habib, the carpenter, to whom they made known their mission. Habib said, "What signs can ye show that ye are sent of God?" And the disciples replied, "We can heal the sick and give sight to those are born blind, and cure the leprosy." Then Habib brought his sick son to them and they laid their hands upon him and he was healed. And Habib believed on Jesus, and he made known the gospel to the people of the city. Many of the people then came to the disciples and were also healed. The news then reached the ear of the governor of the city, and he sent for the two disciples and they preached to him. He replied, "Is your God different from our God?" They said, "Yes. He it is who made thee and thy gods." The governor then sent them away and put them in prison. When they were is prison, Jesus sent Sharu'uu (Simon Peter), and he came secretly and made friends with the servants of the governor, and in time gained access to the governor's presence, and performed a miracle in the presence of the governor by raising a child who had been dead seven days. The child when raised from the dead, said he had seen Jesus Christ in heaven, and that he had interceded for the three disciples in prison. The governor believed and many others with him. Those who did not believe raised a disturbance in the city, and Habib the carpenter exhorted them to believe. For this he was stoned, and, having died, entered into Paradise.
Habib's tomb is still seen in Antioch, and is visited by Muhammadans as a shrine.
HABWAH . The posture of sitting with the legs and thighs contracted towards the belly the back bent forwards, and supported in that position by the arms crossed over the knees. Muslims are forbidden to sit is this posture during the recital of the Khutbah on Fridays (Mishkat book iv. P 45. Pt 2) as it inclines to drowsiness.
HADD , pl. hudud. In its primitive sense, hadd signifies "obstruction" whence a porter or gate keeper is called haddad, or "obstructor", from his office or prohibiting people from entering. In las it expresses the punishment, the limits of which have been defined by Muhammad either in the Qur'an or in the Hadis. These punishments are (1) For adultery, stoning; (2) For fornication, a hundred stripes; (3) For the false accusation of a married person with adultery (or Qazf), eighty stripes; (4) For apostasy, death; (5) For drinking wine, eighty stripes; (6) For theft, the cutting off the right hand; (7) For highway robbery; for simple robbery or the Highway, the loss of hands and feet; for robbery with murder, death, either by the sword of by crucifixion. (Hidayh, vol. ii. p 1. [PUNISHMENT.]
HADIS QUDSI . A divine saying. A term used for a hadis which relates a revelation from God in the language of the Prophet. An example is found in the Mishkat (book i c i pt. 1): "Abu Hurairah said, 'The Prophet of God related these words
of God, "The sons of Adam vex me, and abuse the age, whereas I am the AGE itself: In my hands are all events: I have made the day and night.;:
HADI . Cattle sacrificed at Makkah during the Pilgrimage, as distinguished from animals sacrificed on the Great Festival, which are called uzhiyah. These animals are branded and sent off with strings round thier necks, as offerings to the sacred temple. They may be bullocks, or camels, or sheep, or goats. (Mishkat, book xi. c. viii.)
HAFIZ . Lit. "A Guardian." or protector. (1) One of the name of God al-Hafiz. (2) A Governor, e.g. Hafizu 'l-Bait: the guardian of the Makkan temple. (3) One who has committed the whole of the Qur'an to memory.
'Usman relates that the Prophet said: "The best person amongst you is he who has learnt the Qur'an and teaches it. (Mishkat, book ivv. c. i.). In the east it is usual for blind men to commit the Qur'an to memory, and thus obtain the honorable distinction of Hafiz.
HAFSAH . One of Muhammad's wives. She has the daughter of 'Umar, and the widow of Khunais, an early convert to Islam. She married Muhammad about six months after her former husband's death. During the lifetime of the Prophet she was a person of considerable influence in his counsels, being the daughter of 'Umar. She survived Muhammad some years, and has recorded several traditions of his sayings.
HAGAR Arabic Hajar . The slave wife of Abraham and the mother of Ishmael. Al-Baizawi says that Hajar was the slave girl of Sarah, the wife of Abraham, and she admitted her to Abraham, and from her was born Ishmael. Sarah became jealous of Hajar (because she had a son), and she demanded of Abraham that he should put both the mother and child away, and he sent them away in the direction of Makkah, and at Makkah God produced for them the spring Zamzam [ZAMZAM]. When the tribe of Jurhum saw that there was water in that place, they said to Hajar, "If you will share with us the water of the spring, we will share with you the milk of our herds," and from that time Makkah became a place of importance. (Tafsiry 'l-Baizawi, p. 424.)
The sale of human hair is unlawful in the same manner as the use of it for any purpose is unlawful. Being a part of the human body, it is necessary to preserve it from disgrace, to which an exposure of it to sale necessarily subjects it. It is related in the traditions that God has cursed women who use false hair. (Hidayah, vol. ii. p 439 [HEAD].
HA'ITIYAH . A sect of Muslims founded to Ahmad ibn Ha'it who said that there were two Gods, one whose existence is from eternity (qadim), i.e. Allah, and the other who is created in time (muhad-das), i.e. al-Masih (Christ), and that it is he who will judge the world in the last day. And he maintained that this is the meaning of the words which occur in the traditions: "God created man in his own image." (Kitabu 'l-Ta'rifat, in loco)
AL-HAJARU'L ASWAD . Lit. "The Black Stone." The famous black stone which forms part of the sharp angle of the Ka'bah in the temple at Makkah. Mr. Burkhardt says, "It is an irregular oval, about seven inches in diameter, with an undulating surface, composed of about a dozen smaller stones of different sizes and shapes, well joined together with a small quantity of cement, and perfectly well smoothed; it looks as if the whole had been broken into as many pieces by a violent blow, and then united again. It is very difficult to determine accurately the quality of this stone, which has been worn to its present surface by the millions of touches and kisses it has received. It appeared to me like a lava, containing several small extraneous particles of a whitish and of a yellow substance. Its color is now a deep reddish brown approaching to black. It is surrounded on all sides by a border composed of a substance which I took to be a close cement of pitch and gravel of a similar, but not quite the same, brownish color. This borders serves to support its detached pieces; it is two or three inches in breadth, and rises a little above the surface of the stone. Both the border and the stone itself are encircled by a silver band, broader below than above, and on the two sides, with a considerable swelling below, as if a part of the stone were hidden under it. The lower part of the border is studded with silver nails.
Captain Burton remarks, "The color appeared to me black and metallic and the centre of the stone was sunk about two inches below the metallic circle. Round the sides was a reddish brown cement, almost level with the metal, and sloping sown to the middle of the stone. The band is not a massive arch of gold or silver gilt. I found the aperture in which the stone is, one span and three fingers broacd."
According to Ibn 'Abbas, Muhammad said
the black stone came down from Paradise, and at the time of its descent it was whiter than milk, but that the sins of the children of Adam have caused it to be black, by their touching it. That on the Day of Resurrection, when it will have two eyes, by which it will see and know all those who touched it and kissed it, and when it will have a tongue to speak, it will give evidence in favor of those who touched and kissed it.
Maximus Tyrius, who wrote in the second century, says, "The Arabians pay homage to I know not what god, which they represent by a quadrangular stone," alluding to the Ka'bah or temple which contains the black stone. The Guebars or ancient Persians assert that the Black Stone was amongst the images and relics left by Mahabad and his successors in the Ka'bah, and that it was an emblem of Saturn. It is probably an aerolite, and owes its reputation, like many others, to its fall from the sky. Its existence as an object of adoration in an iconoclastic religious system, can only be accounted for by Muhammad's attempt to conciliate the idolaters of Arabia.
A complete list of the falls of aerolites and meteoric stones through the atmosphere, is published in the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, from the work by Chladni in German, in which the subject is ably and fully treated.
THE HAJARU 'L-ASWAD (Burton)
HAJI , also hajj. A person who has performed the hajj, or pilgrimage to Makkah. It is retained as a title of honor by those who have performed the pilgrimage, e.g.Haji Qasim, i.e. "Qasim the Pilgrim" [HAJJ.]
HAJJ . Lit. "setting out", "tending towards." The pilgrimage to Makkah performed in the month of Zu 'l-Hijjab, or the twelfth month of the Muhammadan year. It is the fifth pillar of Muhammadan practical religion, and an incumbent religious duty, founded upon express injunctions in the Qur'an. According to Muhammad it is a divine institution, and has the following authority in the Qur'an for its observance: -
(It is noticeable that all the verses in the Qur'an with regard to the pilgrimage are in the later Surahs, when they are arranged in their chronological order.)
Surah xxii. 28: -
"And proclaim to the peoples a PILGRIMAGE (hajj). Let them come to thee on foot and on every fleet camel, arriving by every deep defile:
Surah ii. 152: -
"Verily, as-Safa and al-Marwah are among the signs of God; whoever then maketh a pilgrimage (hajj) to the temple, or visiteth it, shall not be to blame if he go round about them both. And as for him who of his own accord doth what is good - god is Grateful, Knowing."
"Accomplish the pilgrimage (hajj), and the visitation ('umrah)
for God; and if ye be hemmed in by foes, send whatever sacrifice shall
be the easiest, and shave not your heads until the offering reach the
place of sacrifice. But whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of
the head, must expiate by fasting, alms, or an offering.
World; but such shall have no portion in the next life;
And some say, 'O Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the next, and keep us from the torment of the fire.'
They shall have the lot which they have merited; and God is swift to reckon.
Bear God in mind during the stated days; out if any haste away in two days (i.e. after the hajj), it shall be no fault in him. And if any tarry longer, it shall be no fault in him, if he fear God. Fear God, then, and know that to Him shall ye be gathered.
The first temple was that founded for mankind, was that in Bakkah (i.e. Makkah) - Bless, and a guidance to human beings.
In it are evident signs, even the standing-place of Abraham (Maqamu Ibrahim) ; and he who entereth it is safe. And the pilgrimage to the temple, is a service due to God for those who are able to journey thither."
Surah v. 2. -
"O Believers! Violate neither the rites of God, nor the sacred months, nor the offering, nor it ornaments, (i.e. on the necks of animals), nor those who press on to the sacred house (al-Baitu 'l-Haram), seeking favor from their Lord and his good pleasure in them."
The performance of the pilgrimage is incumbent upon every Muslim, once in his life-time, if he be an adult, free, sane, well in health, and has sufficient money for the expenses of the journey and for the support of his family during his absence.
If a woman perform the pilgrimage she must do it in company with her husband, or a near relative (muhram). If she can obtain the protection of a near relative and has the necessary expenses for the journey, it is not lawful for her husband to prevent her performing the pilgrimage. This mahram is a near relative whom it is not lawful for her to marry.
The Imam ash-Shafi'I denies the necessity of such attendance, stating that the Qur'an makes no such restriction. His objection is, however, met by a Tradition. "A certain man came to the Prophet and said: 'My wife is about to make the Hajj, but I am called to go on a warlike expedition.' The Prophet said: 'Turn away from the war and accompany thy wife in the hajj".
For a lawful hajj there are three actions which are farz, ands five which are wajib; all the rest are sunnah or musiahabb. The farz are: to wear no other garment except the ihram; to stand in Arafat; to make the tawaf, or circuit round the Ka'bah.
The wajib duties are: to stay in al-Muzdalifah; to run between Mount as-Safa and Mount al-Marwah; to perform the Ramyu 'r-Rijam, or the casting of pebbles; if the pilgrims are non-Meccans, to make an estra tawaf; to shave the head after the pilgrimage is over.
The hajj must be made at the appointed season. Surah ii. 193: "Let the pilgrimage be made in the months already known." These months are Swawwal, Zu 'l-Qa'dah, and the first tem days of Zu 'l-Hijjah. The actual hajj must be in the month of Zu 'l-Hijjah, but the preparations for, and the niyah, or intention of the hajj, can be made in the two preceding months. The 'umrah, or ordinary visitation ['UMRAH], can be done at any time of the year except on the ninth and four succeeding days of Zu 'l-Hijjah. On each of the various roads leading to Makkah, there are at a distance of about five or six miles from the city stages called Miqat. The following are the names. On the Madinah road, the stage is called Zu 'l-Halifah; on the 'Iraq road, Zatu 'Arq; on the Syrian road, Hujfah; on the Najd road, Qarn; on the Yaman road, Yalamiam.
Upon the pilgrim's arrival at the last stage near Makkah, he bathes himself, and performs two rak'ak prayers, and then divesting himself of his clothes, he assumes the pilgrim's sacred robe, which is called the ihram. This garment consists of two seamless wrappers, one being wrapped around the waist, and the other thrown loosely over the shoulder, the head being left uncovered. Sandals may also be worn, but not shoes or boots. After he has assumed the pilgrim's garb, he must not anoint his head, shave any part of his body, pare his nails, nor wear any other garment than the ihram. The pilgrim having now entered upon the hajj, faces Makkah, and makes the niyah (intention), and says: - "O God, I purpose to make the hajj; make this service easy to me and accept it from me. He then proceeds on his journey to the sacred city and on his way, as well as at different periods in the pilgrimage, he recites, or sings with a loud voice, the pilgrim's song, called the Talbiyah ( a word signifying waiting or
standing for orders). In Arabic it runs thus (as given in the Sahihu 'l-Bukhari, p. 210): -
Labbaika! La Sharika laka! Labbaika!
Inna 'l-hamda wa n'ni'mata laka, wa 'l-
La sharika laka!"
Which following the Persian commentator, 'Abdu 'l-Haqq, may be translated as follows: -
I stand up! There is no partner with Thee! I stand up!
Verily Thine is the Praise, the Blessing and the Kingdom!
There is no partner with Thee!"
Immediately on his arrival at Makkah he performs legal abulations in the Masjidu 'l-haram, and then kisses the black stone (al-Hajarn 'l-aswad). He then encompasses the Ka'bah seven times; three times at a quick step or run, and four times at a low pace. These act are called the tawaf and are performed by commencing on the right and leaving the Ka'bah on the left. Each time as the pilgrim passes round the Ka'bah, he touches the Ruknu 'l-Yamani, or the Yamani corner, and kisses the sacred black stone. He then proceeds to the Maqamu Ibrahim (the place of Abraham) where he recites the 119th verse of the IInd Surah of the Qur'an, "Take ye the station of Abraham for a place of prayer," and performs two rak'ah prayers, after with he returns to the black stone and kisses it. He then goes to the gate of the temple leading to Mount as-Safa, and from it ascends the hill, reciting the 153rd verse of the IInd Surah of the Qur'an, "Verily as-Safa and al-Marwah are the signs of God." Having arrived at the summit of the mount, turning towards the Ka'bah, he recites the following: -
"There is no deity but only God! God is great! There is no deity but God alone! He hath performed His promise, and hath aided His servant and hath put to flight the hosts of infidels by Himself alone!"
These words are recited thrice. He then runs from the top of Mount as-Safa to the summit of Mount al-Marwah seven times, repeating the aforesaid prayers on the top of each hill. This is the sixth day, the evening of which is spent at Makkah, where he again encompasses the Ka'bah.
Upon the seventh day he listens to the khutbah, or oration, in the great mosque, in which are set forth the excellences of the pilgrimage and the necessary duties required of all true Muslims on the following days.
On the eighth day, which is called Tarwiyah, he proceeds with his fellow pilgrims to Mina, where he stays and performs the usual service of the Muslim ritual, and remains the night.
The next day (the ninth), after morning prayer, he proceeds to Mount Arafat, where he recites the usual prayers and listens to another khutbah. He then leaves for al-Muzdalifah, a place midway between Mina and 'Arafat, where he should arrive for the sunset prayer.
The next day, the tenth. In the Yaumu 'n-Nahr, or the "Day of Sacrifice," known all through the Muslim world and celebratd as the Idu 'l-Azha. Early in the morning, the pilgrims having said their prayers at Muzdalifah, then proceed in a body to three pillars in Mina, the name of which is called the Shaitanu 'l-Kabir, or "Great Devil." The pilgrim casts seven stones at each of these pillars, the ceremony being called the Ramyu 'r-Rijam, or casting of stones. Holding the rajm, or pebble between the thumb and fore-finger of the right hand, the pilgrim throws it at a distance of not less than fifteen feet, and says - "In the name of God, the Almighty, I do this and in hatred of the devil and his shame." The remaining six stones are thrown in the same way. It is said that this ceremony has been performed ever since the days of Abraham. The pilgrim then returns to Mina and performs the sacrifice of the 'Idu 'l-Azha. The victim may be a sheep, or a goat, or a cow, or a camel, according to the means of the pilgrim.
Placing its head towards the Ka'bah, its fore-legs being bandaged together, the pilgrim stands on the right side of his victim and plunges the knife into its throat with great force, and cries with a loud voice, "Allahu Akbar!" "God is great! O God, accept this sacrifice from me!"
The ceremony concludes the pilgrimage, and the haji or pilgrim then gets himself shaved and his nails pared, and the ihram or pilgrim garment is removed. Although the pilgrimage is over, he should still rest at Makkah the three following days, which are known as the Ayyamu 't-Tashriq, or the days of drying up of the blood of the sacrifice. Three well-earned days of rest after the peripatetic performance of the last four days.
Before he leaves Makkah he should once more perform the circuits round the Ka'bah and throw stones at the Satanic pillars at Mina, seven times. He should also drink of the water of the zamzam well.
Most Muslims then go to al-Madinah, and make their salutations at the shrine of Muhammad. This is regarded as an incumbent duty by all except the Wahhabis, who hold that to make the visitations of the Prophet's tomb a religious ceremony is shirk, or associating the creature with God.
From the time the pilgrim has assumed the ihram until he takes it off, he must abstain from worldly affairs and devote himself entirely to the duties of the Hajj. He is not allowed to hunt, though he may catch fish if he can. "O Believers, kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage." (Surah v. 96.) The Prophet also said: "He who show the place where game is to be found is equally as bad as the man who kills it." The haji must not scratch himself, lest vermin be destroyed, or a hair be uprooted. Should he feel uncomfortable, he must rub himself with the open palm of his hand. The face and head must be left uncovered, the hair on the head and beard unwashed and uncut. "Shave not your heads until the offering reach the place of sacrifice."
(Surah ii. 192). On arriving at an elevated place, on descending a valley, on meeting any one, on entering the city of Makkah or the sacred temple, the haji should continually repeat the word "Labbaika, Labbaika"; and whenever he sees the Ka'bah he should recite the Takbir, "God is great!" and the Ta'lih, "There is no deity but God!"
The pilgrimage known as the hajj, as has been already stated, can only be made on the appointed days of the month of Zu 'l-Hijjah. ['UMRAH.] If the pilgrim arrives as late as the ninth day, and is in time to spend that day, he can still perform the pilgrimage legally.
The pilgrimage cannot be performed by proxy by Sunni Muslims, but is allowed by the Shi'ahs, and it is by both considered a meritorious act to pay the expenses of one who cannot afford to perform it. But if a Muhammadan on his death bed bequeath a sum of money to be paid to a certain person to perform the pilgrimage, it is considered to satisfy the claims of the Muslim law. If a Muslim have the means of performing the pilgrimage, and omit to do so, its omission is equal to kabirah, or mortal sin.
According to the saying of the Prophet (Mishkat, book xi. Ch. 1), the merits of a pilgrimage to Makkah are very great : -
"He who makes the pilgrimage for God's sake, and does not talk loosely, nor act wickedly, shall return as pure from sin as the day on which he was born." "Verily, they (the hajj and the 'umrah) put away poverty and sin like the fires of a forge removes dross. The reward of a pilgrimage is paradise." "When you see a pilgrim. Salute and embrace him, and request him to ask pardon of God for you, for his own sins have been forgiven and his supplications will be accepted."
For a philological and technical explanation of the following terms which occur in this account of the hajj, refer to the words as they occur in this dictionary: "ARAFAH, AYYAMU 'T-TASHRIQ, HAJARU 'L-ASWAD, HAJI, IHRAM, MARWAH, MASJIDU 'L-HARAM, MAQAMU IBRAHIM, MAHRAM, MIQAT, MUZDALIFAH, TAWAF, 'UMRAH, RAMYU 'L-JIMAR, ZAMZAM, TALBIYAH, RUK'NU 'L-YAMANI, TARWIAH, KHUTBAH, 'IDU 'L-AZHA, SAFA.
The Muslim who has performed the pilgrimage is called a hajji, which title he retains e.g. Haji Qasim, the Pilgrim Qasim.
Only five Englishmen are known to have visited Makkah, and to have witnessed the ceremonies of the pilgrimage: - Joseph Pitts, of Exeter, A.D. 1678; John Lewis Burckhardt, A.D. 1814; Lieutenant Richard Burton of the Bombay Army, A.D. 1853; Mr. H. Bicknell, A.D. 1862; Mr. T.F. Keane, 1880. The narratives of each of these "pilgrims" have been published. The first account in English of the visit of a European to Makkah, is that of Lodovico Bartema, a gentleman of Rome, who visited Makkah in 1503. His narrative was published in Willes and Eden's Decades, A.D. 1555.
Professor Palmer ("Introduction" to the Qur'an, p. liii.) says-: "The ceremonies of the pilgrimage could not be entirely done away with. The universal reverence of the Arab for the Kaabah was too favorable and obvious a means for uniting all the tribes into one confederation with one common purpose in view. The traditions of Abraham the father of their race, and the founder of Muhammad's own religion, as he always declared it to be, no doubt gave the ancient temple a peculiar sanctity in the Prophet's eyes, and although he first settled upon Jerusalem as his qiblah, he afterwards reverted to the Kaabah itself. Here, then, Muhammad found a shrine, to which, as well as at which, devotion had been paid from time immemorial; it was one thing which the scattered Arabian nation had in common - the one thing which gave them even the shadow of a national feeling; and to have dreamed of abolishing it, or even of diminishing the honors paid to it, would have been madness and ruin to his enterprise. He therefore did the next best thing, he cleared it of idols and dedicated it to the service of God."
Mr. Stanley Lane Poole (Introduction to Lane's Selections, p. lxxxiv.) remarks:-
"This same pilgrimage is often urged as a sign of Mohammad's tendency to superstition and even idolatry. It is asked how the destroyer of idols could have reconciled his conscience to the circuits of the Ka'bah and the veneration of the black stone covered with adoring kisses. The rites of the pilgrimage cannot certainly be defended against the chard of superstition; but it is east to see why Mohammad enjoined them. They were hallowed to him by the memories of his ancestors, who had been guardians of the sacred temple, and by the traditional reverence of all his people; and besides this tie of association, which in itself was enough to make it impossible for him to do away with the rites, Mohammad perceived that the worship in the Ka'bah would prove of real value to his religion. He swept away the more idolatrous and immoral part of the ceremonies, but he retained the pilgrimage to Mekka and the old veneration of the temple for reasons of which it is impossible to dispute the wisdom. He well knew the consolidating effect of forming a centre to which his followers should gather; and hence he reasserted the sanctity of the black stone that 'came down from heaven'; he ordained that everywhere throughout the world the Muslim should pray looking towards the K'bah, and he enjoined him to make the pilgrimage thither. Mekka is to the Muslim what Jerusalem is to the Jew. It bears with it all the influence of centuries of associations. It carries the Muslim back to the cradle of his faith, the childhood of his prophet; it reminds him of the struggle between the old faith and the new, of the overthrow of the idols, and the establishment of the worship of the One God. And, most of all, it bids him remember that all his brother Muslims are worshipping towards the same sacred spot, that he is one of a great company of believers,
united by one faith, filled with the same hopes, reverencing the same thing, worshipping the same God. Mohammad showed his knowledge of the religious emotions in man when he preserved the sanctity of the temple of Islam."
The Makkan pilgrimage admits of no other explanation than this, that the Prophet of Arabia found it expedient to compromise with Arabian idolatry. And hence we find the superstition and silly customs of the Hajj grafted on to a religion which professes to be both monotheistic in its principle, and iconoclastic in its practices.
A careful and critical study of Islam will, we think, convince any candid mind that at first Muhammad intended to construct his religion on the lines of the Old Testament. Abraham, the true Muslim, was his prototype, Moses his law giver, and Jerusalem, his Qiblah. But circumstances were ever wont to change not only the Prophet's revelations, but also his moral standards. Makkah became the Qiblah; and the spectacle of the Muslim world bowing in the direction of a black stone, whilst they worship the one God, marks Islam, with its Makkan pilgrimage, as a religion of compromise.
Apologists of Islam have endeavoured to shield Muhammad from the solemn charge of having "forged the name of God", but we know of nothing which can justify the act of the pilgrimage all the force and solemnity of a divine enactment.
The Wahhabis, the Puritans of Islam, regard the circumambulation of the Prophet's tomb as superstition (as shirk, or associating something with God, in fact), but how can they justify the foolish ceremonies of the hajj? If reverence for the Prophet's tomb is shirk, what are runnings at as-Safa and al-Marwah, the stoning of the pillars, and the kissing of the black stone? No Muslim has ever yet attempted to give a spiritual explanation of the ceremonies of the Makkan pilgrimage, for in attempting to do so he would be charged with the heresy of shirk!
Mr. W.S. Blunt in his Future of Islam, has given some interesting statistics regarding the pilgrimage to Makkah in the year 1880, which he obtained during a residence at Cairo, Damascus, and Jiddah. The figures, he says, are taken principally from an official record kept for some years past at Jiddah, and checked as far as European subjects are concerned, by reference to the consular agents residing there.
HAJJATU'L-WADA . The last or farewell pilgrimage performed by Muhammad, and which is taken as the model of an orthodox hajj. It is called the Hajju 'l-Akbar, or Greater Pilgrimage, in the Qur'an. Surah ix. 3 (See Mishkat, book xi. ch iii., and Muir's Life of Mahomet.) It is supposed to have commence February 23, A.D. 632.
According to the Qur'an, Surah iv. 39, domestic quarrels should be settled by an arbitrator: - "If ye fear a breach between the two (i.e. husband and wife) then appoint an arbitrator from his people, and an arbitrator from her people."
Al-Hakam, the Arbitrator, is one of the ninety-nine attributes of God, although it is not so employed in the Qur'an.
HAKIM , pl. hukama'; Heb. , Lit. "A wise person." (1) A philosopher. (2) A doctor of medicine. (3) Al-Hakim, "the Wise One." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God. It frequently occurs in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah ii. 123 : "Thou art the Mighty and the Wise!"
HAL . A state, or condition. A term used by the Sufi mystics for those thoughts and conditions which come upon the heart of man without his intention or desire, such as sorrow, or fear, or pleasure, or desire, or lust. If these conditions are stable and transient, they are called malkah or maqum; but if they are transient and fleeting, they are called hal. (Abdu'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
A state of ecstacy induced by continued contemplation of God. It is considered a divine gift and a sure prognostication of speedily arriving at "The Truth."
Professor Palmer says (Oriental Mysticism, p. 66), "This assiduous contemplation of startling metaphysical theories is exceedingly attractive to an Oriental mind, and not unfrequently produces a state of mental excitement akin to the phenomena observed during the recent religious revivals. Such ecstatic state is considered a sure prognostication of direct illumination of the heart by God, and constitutes the fifth stage (in the mystic journey) called hal or ecstasy."
HAMALAH . Lit. "Those who bear the throne." Certain angels mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah xl. 7: "Those who bear the throne (i.e. the Hamaltu'l-Arsh) and those around it (i.e. the Karubin) celebrate the praise of their Lord, and believe in Him, and ask pardon for those who believe."
Al-Baghawi, the commentator, says they are eight angels of the highest rank. They are so tall that their feet stand on the lowest strata of the earth and their beads reach the highest heavens, the universe does not reach up to their navels, and it is a journey of seven hundred years from their ears to their shoulders! (Al Baghawi, Bombay edition, vol. ii, p. 23.)
Surah xxviii, 7 : "For sinners were Pharaoh and Haman."
Surah xxix. 38: "Korah (Qarun) and Pharaoh and Haman! With proofs of his mission did Moses come to them and they behaved proudly on the earth."
Surah xl. 38: "And Pharaoh said, 'O Haman, build for me a tower that I may reach the avenues."
Some European critics think that Muhammad has here made Haman the favorite of Ahasuerus and the enemy of the Jews, the vizier of Pharaoh. The Rabbins make this vizier to have been Korah, Jethro, or Balaam. (Midr. Jalkut on Ex, ch. 1, Sect. 162-168.)
In the Mishkat (book iv. ch. i. pt.3), there is a tradition that Muhammad said he who neglects prayers will be in hell with Korah, Pharaoh, Haman, and Ubaiy ibn Khalf (an infidel whom Muhammad slew with his own hand at the battle of Uhud.)
(1) Al-hamdu 'l-Qauli, the praise of God with the tongue, with those attributes with which He has made himself known Himself. (2) Al-hamdu 'l-Fi'li, the praise of God with the body according to the will of God. (3) Al-hamdu 'l-Hali, the praise of God with the heart and spirit.
HAMIM . Seven Surahs of the Qur'an begin with the letters and are called al-Hawamin. They are the XL, XLI, XLII, XLIII, XLIV, XLV, and XLVI. Various opinions are held by Muhammadan commentators as to the meaning of these mysterious letters. Jalalu 'd-din as-Suyuti in his Itqan, says these letters are simply initial letters, the meaning of which is known only to God, but Ibn 'Abbas says the letters , and stand for ar-Rahman, "the Merciful," one of the attributes of God.
Mr. Rodwell, in his Introduction to the Koran, says, "Possibly the letters Ha, Mim, which are prefixed to numerous successive Suras were private marks, or initial letters, attached by their proprietor to the copies furnished to Said when effecting his recession of the text under Othman. In the same way, the letters prefixed to other Suras may be monograms, or abbreviations, or initial letters of the names of the persons to whom the copies of the respective Suras belonged."
HAMRAU 'L-ASAD . A village or small town, the scene of one of Muhammad's expeditions against the Quraish. Having reached this spot he kindled five hundred fires to make the Quraish believe that the pursuing force was very large, and, contenting himself with this demonstration, he returned to al-Madinah, from which it was about 60 miles. According to Burton, it is the modern Wasitah.
"At Hamra al Asad, Mahomet made prisoner one of the enemy, the poet Abu Ozza, who had loitered behind the rest. He had been taken prisoner at Bedr, and, having five daughters dependent on him, had been freely released, on the promise that he would not again bear arms in the war against the Prophet. He now sought for mercy: 'O Mahomet! He prayed, 'forgive me of thy grace.' 'Nay, verily,' said the Prophet 'a believer may not be twice bitten from the same hold. Thou shalt never return to Mecca, stroke thy beard and say, I have again deceived Mahomet. Lead him forth to execution! So saying, he mentioned to a bystander, who with his sword struck off the captive's head." (Muir's Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 276.)
HAMZAH . Muhammad's uncle, who embraced Islam and became one of its bravest champions. He was at the battle of Uhud and slew 'Usman, one of the leaders of the Quraish, but was soon afterwards killed by a wild negro named Wahshi, and his dead body shamefully mutilated. At his death, Muhammad is recorded to have said that Hamzah was "the lion of God and of His Apostle." The warlike deeds of Hamzah are recorded in Persian poetry, in which he is celebrated as Amir Hamzah.
HAMZIYAH . A sect of Muslims founded by Hamzah ibn Adrak, who say that the children (infants) of infidels will be consigned to the Fire of Hell, the general belief of Muhammadans being that they will have a special place in al-'Araf. (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat, in loco.)
(1)It is a rule with the Muslims to honor the right hand above the left; to use the right hand for all honorable purposes, and the left for actions which, though necessary, are unclean. The hands must be washed before prayers [ABLUTIONS] and before meals.
(2) the expression yadu'llah, the "hand of God," occurs in the Qur'an:-
Surah v. 69. "He Jews say, 'God's hand is fettered'; their hands are fettered, for they are cursed."
Surah xlviii. 10: "God's hand is above their hands."
There is a controversy between the orthodox Sunnis and the Wahhabis regarding the expression, "God's hand." The former maintaining that it is a figurative expression for the power of God, the latter holding that it is literal; but that it is impossible to say in what sense or manner God has a hand; for as the essence of God is not known, how can the manner of His existence be understood?
HANDKERCHIEFS. The custom of keeping a handkerchief in the hand, as is frequently practiced, is said to be abominable (makruh). Many, however, hold that it is allowable, if done from motives of necessity. This, says Abu Hanifah, is approved; for the practice is abominable only when it is done ostentatiously. (Hidayah, vol 1 p. 95)
HANIF , pl. Hunafa'. Lit. "one who is inclined." (1) Anyone sincere in his inclination to Islam. (2) One orthodox in the faith. (3) One who is of the religion of Abraham. (See Majma'u 'l-Bihar, in loco)
The word occurs ten times in the Qur'an.
I. Six times for the religion of Abraham:-
Surah ii. 129: "They say, 'Be ye Jews or Christians so shall ye be guided! Say: 'Not so!' But the faith of Abraham, the Hanif, he was not of the idolators."
Surah iii. 60: "Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian, but he was a Hanif resigned, and not of the idolators."
Idem., 89: "Follow the faith of Abraham, a Hanif, who was not of the idolators."
Surah vi 162 "The faith of Abraham the Hanif he was not of the idolaters."
Surah xvi. 121: "Verily Abraham was an Imam a Hanif, and was not of the idolaters."
Surah vi 79: (Abraham said) "I have turned my face to Him who originated the heaven and the earth as a Hanif and I am not of the idolaters."
II. - Four times for one sound in the faith -
Surah x. 105: "Make steadfast thy face to the religion as a Hanif and be not an idolater."
Surah xxii. 32: "Avoid speaking falsely being Hanifs to God, not associating aught with Him."
Surah xcviii 4: "Being sincere in religion unto Him, as Hanifs, and to be steadfast in prayer."
Surah xxx. 29: "Set thy face steadfast towards the religion as a Hanif."
III. - The term was also applied in the early stages of Islam, and before Muhammad claimed the position of an inspired prophet, to those who had endeavored to search for the truth among the mass of conflicting dogmas and superstitions of the religions that existed in Arabia. Amongst these Hanifs were Waraqah, the Prophet's cousin, and Zaid ibn 'Anu, surnamed the Enquirer. They were known as Hanifs a word which originally meant "inclining one's steps toward anything or a pervert. Muhammad appears from the above verses (when chronologically arranged), to have first used it for the religion of Abraham, but afterwards for any sincere professor of Islam.
(1) The essence of a thing as meaning that by being which a thing is what it is. As when we say that a rational animal is the haqiqah of a human being. (See Kitabu 'l-Ta'rifat.)
(2) A word or phrase used in its proper or original sense as opposed to that which trope or figure.
(3) The sixth stage in the mystic journey of the Sufi when he is supposed to receive a revelation of the true nature of the God-head, and to have arrived at "the Truth."
The Wahhabis do not believe in the preexistence of their Prophet and the doctrine is most probably and invention of the Sufi mystics in the early states of Islam.
According to the Imam Qastalani (Muwahib-i-laduniya, vol. i, p 12), it is related by Jabir ibn 'Abdi'llah al-Ansari that the Prophet said "The first thing created was the light of your Prophet, which was created from the light of God. This light of mine roamed about wherever God will, and when the Almighty resolved to make the world, he divided this light of Muhammad into four portions; from the first he created the Pen (qalam); from the second, the Tablet (laah), from the third, the highest heaven and the throne of God ('arsh); the forth portion was divided into four sections: from the first were created the Hamalatu l-'Arsh, or the eight angels who support the throne of God; from the second, the kursi, or lower throne of God; from the third, the angels, and the forth, being divided into four subdivisions, from it were created: (1)the firmaments or seven heavens, (2) the earth, (3) the seven paradises and seven hells, (4) and again from a forth section were created (1) the light of the eyes, (2) he light of the mind, (3) the light of the love of the Unity of God, (4) the remaining portion of creation."
The author of the Hayutu 'l-Qulub, a Shiah book of traditions (See Merrick's translation, p. 4) says the traditions respecting the creations from this Light of Muhammad are numerous and discordant, but that the discrepancies may possibly be reconciled by referring the diverse date to different eras in the process of creation. "The holy light of Muhammad," he says "dwelt under the empyrean seventy three thousand years, and then resided seventy thousand years in Paradise. Afterwards it rested another period of seventy thousand years under the celestial tree called Sidratu 'l-Munlaha,and, emigrating from heaven to heaven, arrived at length in the lowest of these celestial mansions, where it remained until the Most High willed the creation of Adam."
(A very curious account of the absurd belief of the Shiahs on this subject will be found in Merrick's edition of the Hayutu 'l-Qulub; Boston 1850.)
HAQQ . "Truth, justice." A terms used in theology for that which is true e.g. The word of God; religion. In law it implies that which is due. A thing decreed; a claim. By the Sufi mystics it is always used for the Divine Essence; God.
Al-Haqq. "The Truth." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God.
AL-HAQQAH . Lit. "The surely Impending." The title of the LXIXth Surah of the Qur'an, in which the word occurs in the opening verse: "The inevitable! (al-Haqqutu!). What is the inevitable?" The word is understood by all commentators to mean the Day of Resurrection and Judgement. It does not occur in any other portion of the Qur'an.
HAQQU 'LLAH . "The right of God." In law, the retributive chastisement which it is the duty of a magistrate to inflict for crime and offences against morality and religion. In theology it means prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage, and other religious duties.
HAQQU 'L-YAQIN . "A conviction of the truth." A term used by the Sufi mystics for a state in which the seeker after truth has in though and reflection a positive evidence of his extinction and of his being incorporated in he Essence of God [YAQIN.]
HARAM . Lit. "prohibited." That which is unlawful. The word is used in both a good and a bad sense e.g. Baitu 'l-haram, the sacred house; and Malu 'l-haram, unlawful possessions. Ibnu 'l-haram, an illegitimate son; Shahru 'l-haram a sacred month.
A thing is said to be haram when it is forbidden, as opposed to that which is halal, or lawful. A pilgrim is said to be haram as soon as he puts on the pilgrim's garb.
Haramu 'llah la afa'lu is a form of oath that a man will not do a thing.
HARAMU 'L-MADINAH . The sacred boundary of al-Madinah within which certain acts are unlawful which are lawful elsewhere. The Imam Abu Hanifah says that although it is respectful to the position of the sacred city, as the birth-place of the Prophet, not to bear arms, or kill, or cut grass, &c, still it is not, as in the case of Makkah, an incumbent religious duty. According to a tradition by 'Ali ibn Abi Talib (Mishkat, book xi. ch. xvi.), the Hududu 'l-Haram, or sacred limits of al-Madinah are from Jabal 'Air to Saur. According to Burton, the diameter of the Haram is from ten to twelve miles. (El Medinah and Meccah, vol. i. p. 362.)
HARAMU MAKKAH . The sacred boundary of Makkah within which certain acts are unlawful which are lawful elsewhere. It is not lawful to carry arms, or ti fight within its limits. Its thorns must not be broken, nor its game molested, nor must anything be taken up which has fallen on the ground, unless it is done to restore it to its owner. Its fresh grass or even it dry grass or even its dry grass must not be cut; except the bog rush (izkhir), because it is used for blacksmith's fires and for thatching houses. (A tadition by Ibn 'Abbas. Mishkat, book xi. ch xv, pt,1) 'Abdu l-Haqq says that when Abraham "the friend of God", placed the black stone at the time of the building of the Ka'bah its east, west, north, and south quarters became bright with light and that wherever the brightness extended itself beame the Hadudu 'l-Haram, or the limits of the sacred city. These limits are marked by manars or pillars on all sides, except on the Jiddah and Jairanah roads, regarding which there is some dispute as to the exact distance.
HARES. Arabic arnab, pl. aranib. Heb. . The flesh of the hare is lawful for the Prophet ate it, and commanded his companions to do so (Hidayah, vol. iv p/ 75). A difference of opinion has in all ages existed as to the value of the hare as an article of food. The Greeks and Romans ate it in spite of an opinion that prevailed that it was not wholesome. In the law of Moses, it is specified amongst the unclean (Lev. xi 6; Deut xiv. 7). The Parsees do not eat hare's flesh, nor do the Armenians.
HARF . (1) An extremity, verge, or border. (2) A letter of the alphabet. (3) A particle in grammar. (4) A dialect of Arabia, or a mode of expression peculiar to certain Arabs. The Qur'an is said to have been revealed in seven dialects (sab'ut ahruf). [QUR'AN.] (5) A term used by the Sufi mystics for the particle of any true essence.
HARIM, or HAREEM . A word used especially in Turkey, Egypt, and Syria, for the female apartments of a Muhammadan household. In Persia, Afghanistan, and India, the terms haramgah, mahallsaria, and zananuh are used for the same place.
The seclusion of women being enjoined in the Qur'an (Surah xxxiii. 55), in all Muhammadan countries it is the rule for respectable women to remain secluded at home, and not to travel abroad unveiled, nor to associate with men other than their husbands of such male relatives as are forbidden in marriage by reason of consanguinity. In consequence of these injunctions, which have all the force of a divine enactment, the female portion of a Muhammadan family always resides in apartments which are in an inclosed courtyard and excluded from public view. This inclosure is called the harim, and sometimes haram, or in Persian zananah, from ran, (a "woman"). Mr. Lane in his Modern Egyptians, has given a full account of the Egyptian harim. We are indebted to Mrs. Meer Ali for the following very graphic and interesting description of a Muhammadan zananah or harim in Lucknow.
Mrs. Meer Ali was an English lady who married a Muhammadan gentleman, and resided amongst the people of Lucknow for twelve years. Upon the death of her husband, she returned to England, and published
her Observations of the Musalmans of India, which was dedicated, with permission, to Queen Adelaide.
"The habitable buildings to a native Muhammadan home are raised a few steps from the court; a line of pillars forms the front of the building, which has no upper rooms; the roof is flat, and the sides and back without windows, or any aperture through which air can be received. The sides and back are merely high wall, forming an enclosure, and the only air is admitted from the fronts of the dwelling place facing the court-yard. The apartments are divided into long halls, the extreme corners having small rooms or dark closets having small rooms or dark closets purposely built for the repository of valuables or stores, doors are fixed to these closets, which are the only places I have seen with them in a zananah or mahall (house or palace occupied by females); the floor is either of beaten earth, bricks, or stones; boarded floors are not yet introduced. As they have neither doors nor windows to the halls, warmth or privacy is secured by means of thick wadded curtains, made to fit each opening between the pillars. Some zananahs have two rows of pillars in the halls with wadded curtains to each, thus forming two distinct halls, as occasion may serve, or greater warmth be required; this is a convenient arrangement where the establishment of servants, slaves, &c is extensive."
"The wadded curtains are called pariahs; these are sometimes made of woolen cloth, but more generally of coarse calico, of two colors, in patchwork style, striped, vandyked, or in some other ingeniously contrived and ornamented way, according to their individual taste."
"Besides the pariahs, the openings between the pillars have blinds nearly made of fine bamboo strips, woven together with colored cords; these are called chicks. Many of them are painted green, others are more gaudy, both in color and variety of patterns. These blinds constitute a real comfort to everyone in India, as they admit air when let down, and at the same time shut out flies and other annoying insects; besides which, the extreme glare is shaded by them - a desirable object to foreigners in particular."
"The floors of the halls are first matted with the coarse date-leaf matting of the country, over which are spread shatranjis (thick cotton carpets, peculiarly the manufacture of the Upper Provinces of India, woven in stripes of blue and white, or shades of blue); a white calico carpet covers the shatranji on which the females take their seat."
"The bedsteads of the family are placed, during the day, in lines at the back of the halls, to be moved at pleasure to any chosen spot for the night's repose; often into the open court-yard, for the benefit of the pure air. They are all formed on one principle, differing only in size and quality; they stand about half a yard from the floor, the legs round and broad at bottom, narrowing as they rise towards the frame, which is laced over with a thick cotton tape, made for the purpose, and plaited in checquers, and thus rendered soft, or rather elastic, and very pleasant to recline upon. The legs of these bedsteads are in some instances gold and silver gilt, or pure silver; others have enamel paintings on fine wood; the inferior grades have them merely of wood and painted plain and varnished. The servants' bedsteads are of the common mango-wood without ornament, the lacing of these for the sacking being of elastic string manufactured from the fibre of the cocoa-nut."
"Such are the bedsteads of every class of people. They seldom have mattresses: a white quilt is spread on the lacing, over which a calico sheet, tied at each corner of the bedstead with cords and tassels; several thin flat pillows of beaten cotton for the head; a muslin sheet for warm weather, and a well wadded razai (coverlid) for winter is all these children of nature deem essential to their comfort in the way of sleeping. They have no idea of night-dresses; the same suit that adorns a lady, is retained both night and day, until a change be needed. The single article exchanged at night is the dupatta (a small shawl for the head), and that only when it happens to be of silver tissue or embroidery, for which a muslin or calico sheet is substituted."
"The very highest circles have the same habits in common with the meanest, but those who can afford shawls of Cashmere, prefer them for sleeping in, when the cold weather renders them bearable. Blankets are never used except by the poorest peasantry, who wear them in lieu of better garments night and day in the winter season; they are always black, the natural color of the wool. The quilts of the higher orders are generally made of silk of the brightest hues, well wadded, and lined with dyed muslin of assimilating color; they are usually bound with broad silver ribands, and sometimes bordered with gold brocaded trimmings. They middling classes, have fine chintz quilts, and the servants and slaves coarse ones of the same material; but al are on the same plan, whether for a queen or the meanest of her slaves, differing only in the quality of the material. The mistress of the house is easily distinguished by her seat of honor in the hall of a zananh, a masnad not being allowed to any other person but the lady of the mansion. The maenad carpet is spread on the floor, if possible near to a pillar about the centre of the hall, and is made of many varieties of fabric - gold cloth, quilted silk, brocaded silk, velvet, fine chintz, or whatever may suit the lady's tastes, circumstances, or convenience. It is about two yards square, and generally boadered or fringed, on which is placed the all-important maenad. This article may be understood by those who have seen a lace-maker's pillow in England, excepting only that the maenad is about twenty times the size of that useful little article in the hands of our industrious villages. The masnad is covered with gold cloth, silk, velvet, or calico with square pil-
lows to correspond, for the elbows, the knees, &c. This is the seat of honor, to be invited to share which, with the lady-owner, is a mark of favor to an equal or inferior; when a superior pays a visit of honor, the prided seat is usually surrendered to her, and the lady of the house takes her place most humbly on the very edge of her own carpet. Looking-glasses or ornamental furniture are very rarely to be seen in the zananah, even of the very richest females. Chairs and sofa re produced when English visitors are expected; but the ladies of Hindustan prefer the usual mode of sitting and lounging on the carpet; and as for tables, I suppose not one gentlewoman of the whole country has ever been seated at one; and very few, perhaps, have any idea of their useful purposes, all their meals served on the floor, where dastarkhwans (table cloths we should call them) are spread, but neither knives, forks, spoons, glasses, nor napkins, so essential to the comfortable enjoyment of a meal amongst Europeans. But those who never knew such comforts have no desire for the indulgence, nor taste to appreciate them."
"On the several occasions, amongst native society, of assembling in large parties, as at births and marriages, the halls, although extensive, would be inadequate to accommodate the whole party. They then have awnings of white calico, neatly flounced with muslin, supported on poles fixed in the court-yard, and connecting the open space with the great hall, by wooden platforms which are brought to a line with the building, and covered with shatranji, and white carpets to correspond with the floor-furniture of the hall; and here the ladies sit by day and sleep by night very comfortably, without feeling any great inconvenience from the absence of their bedsteads, which could never be arranged for the accommodation of so large an assemblage - nor is it ever expected."
"The unusually barren look of these almost unfurnished halls, is on such occasions quite changed, when the ladies are assembled in their various dresses; the brilliant display of jewels, the glittering drapery of their dress, the various expressions of countenance, and different figures, the multitude of female attendants and slaves, the children of all ages and sizes in their variously ornamental dresses, are subjects to attract both the eye and the mind of an observing visitor; and the hall, which when empty appeared desolate and comfortless, thus filled, leaves nothing wanting to render the scene attractive."
"The buzz of human voices, the happy playfulness of the children, the chaste singing of the domnis fill up the animated picture. I have sometimes passed an hour or two in witnessing their innocent amusements, without any feeling of regret for the brief sacrifice of time I had made. I am free to confess, however, that I have returned to my tranquil home with increased delight after having witnessed the bustle of a zananah assembly. At first I pitied the apparent monotony of their lives but this feeling has worn away by intimacy with the people, who are thus precluded from the mixing generally with the world. They are happy in their confinement; and never having felt the sweets of liberty, would not know how to use the boon if it were to be granted them. As the bird from the nest immured in a cage is both cheerful and contented, so are these females. They have not, it is true, many intellectual resources, but they have naturally good understandings, and having learned their duty they strive to fulfill it. So far as I have had any opportunity of making personal observation on their general character, they appear to me obedient wives, dutiful daughters, affectionate mothers, kind mistresses, sincere friends, and liberal benefactresses to the distressed poor. These are their moral qualification, and in their religious duties, they are zealous in performing the several ordinances which they have been instructed by their parents or husbands to observe. If there be any merit in obeying the injunctions of their law-giver, those whom I have known most intimately, deserve praise since 'they are faithful in that they profess."
"To ladies accustomed from infancy to confinement, this kind of life is by no means irksome; they have their employments and their amusements, and though these are not exactly to our taste, nor suited to our mode of education, they are not the less relished by those for whom they were invented. They perhaps wonder equally at some of our mode of dissipating times, and fancy we might spend it more profitably. Be that as it may, the Muslim ladies, with whom I have been long intimate, appear to me always happy, contented, and satisfies with the seclusion to which they were born; they desire no other, and I have ceased to regret they cannot be made partakers of that freedom of intercourse with the world we deem so essential to our happiness, since their health suffers nothing from that confinement, by which they are preserved from a variety of snares and temptations; besides which, they would deem it disgraceful in the highest degree to mix indiscriminately with men who are not relations. They are educated from infancy for retirement, and they can have no wish that the custom should be changed, which keeps them apart from the society of men who are not very nearly related to them. Female society is unlimited, and that they enjoy without restraint."
"Those females who rank above peasants or inferior servants, are disposed from principle to keep themselves strictly from observation; all who have any regard for the character or the honor of their house, seclude themselves from the eye of strangers, carefully instructing their young daughters to a rigid observance of their own prudent example. Little girls, when four years old, are kept strictly behind the pardah, (lit. "curtain"), and when they move abroad it is always in covered conveyances, and under the guardianship of a faithful female domestic, who is equally tenacious as the mother to
preserve the young lady's reputation unblemished by concealing her from the gaze of men."
"The ladies of zananah life are not restricted from the society of their own sex; they are, as I have remarked, extravagantly fond of company, and equally as hospitable when entertained. To be alone is a trial to which they are seldom exposed, every lady having companions amongst her dependants; and according to her means the number in her establishment is regulated. Some ladies of rank have from two to then companions, independent of slaves and domestics; and there are some of the royal family at Lucknow who entertain in their service two or three hundred female dependents, of all classes. A well-filled zananah is a mark of gentility; and even the poorest lady in the country will retain a number of slaves and domestics, if she cannot afford companions; besides which they are miserable without society, the habit of associating with numbers having grown up with infancy to maturity; to be alone, is considered, with women thus situated, a real calamity."
"On occasions of assembling in large parties, each lady takes with her a companion besides two or three slaves to attend upon her, no one expecting to be served by the servants of the house at which they are visiting. This swells the numbers to be provided for; and as the visit is always for three days and three nights (except on 'Ids, when the visit is confined to one day), some fore-though must be exercised by the lady of the house, that all may be accommodated in such a manner as may secure to her the reputation of hospitality."
"The kitchen and offices to the zananah, I have remarked, occupy one side of the quadrangle; they face the great or centre hall appropriated to the assembly. Those kitchens, however, are sufficiently distant to prevent any great annoyance from the smoke - I say smoke, because chimneys have not yet been introduced into the kitchens of the natives."
"The fire-places are all on the ground, something resembling stoves, each admitting one saucepan, the Asiatic style of cooking requiring no other contrivance. Roast or boiled joints are never seen at the dinner of a native; a leg of mutton or sirloin of beef would place the hostess under all sorts of difficulties, where knives and forks are not understood to be amongst the useful appendages of a meal. The varieties of their dishes are countless, but stews and curries are the chief; al the others are mere varieties. The only thing in the shape of roast meats are small lean cutlets bruised, seasoned and cemented with pounded poppy seed. Several bing fastened together on skewers, they are grilled or roasted over a charcoal fire spread on the ground, and then called kabab, which word implies roast meat."
"The kitchen of a zananah would be inadequate to the business of cooking for a large assembly; the most choice dishes only (for the highly favored guests), are cooked by the servants of the establishment. The needed abundance required in entertaining a large party is provided by a regular bazar cook, several of whom establish themselves in native cities, or wherever there is a Muslim population. Orders being previously given, the morning and evening dinners are punctually forwarded at the appointed hours in covered trays, each try having portions of the several goo things ordered, so that there is no confusion in serving out the feast on its arrival at the mansion. The food thus prepared by the bazar cook (nanbia, he is called); is plain boiled rice, sweet rice, khir (rice-milk), mutanjan (rice sweetened with the addition of fruits, raisins, &c., colored with saffron), salans (curries) of may varieties, some cooked with vegetables, others with unripe fruits with or without meat; pulaos of many sorts, kababs, preserves, pickles, chatnis, and many other thing too tedious to admit of detail."
"The bread in general use amongst the natives is chiefly unleaded: nothing in the likeness of English bread is to be seen at their meals; and many object to its being fermented with the intoxicating toddy (extracted from a tree). Most of the native bread is baked on iron plates over a charcoal fire. They have many varieties, both plain and rich, and some of the latter resembles our pastry, both in quality and flavor."
"The dinners, I have said, are brought into the zananah, ready dished in the native earthenware, or trays; and as they neither use spoons nor forks, there is no great delay in setting out the meal where nothing is required for display or effect, beyond the excellent quality of the food and its being well cooked. In a large assembly all cannot dine at the dastarkhwan of the lady hostess, even if privileged by their rank; they are, therefore, accommodated in groups of ten, fifteen, or more, as may be convenient; each lady having her companion at the meal, and her slaves to brush off the intruding flies with a cauri, to hand water, or to fetch or carry any article of delicacy from or to a neighboring group. The slaves and servant dine in parties after their ladies have finished. In any retired corner of the court-yard - always avoiding as much as possible the presence of their superiors."
"Before anyone touches the meal, water is carried round for each lady to wash the hand and rinse the mouth. It is deemed unclean to eat without this form of ablution, and the person neglecting it would be held unholy. This done, the lady turns to her meal saying, "Bismillah!" (In the name or to the praise of God!), and with the right hand conveys the food to her mouth (the left hand is never used at meals); and although they partake of every variety of food placed before them with no other aid than their fingers, yet the technical habit is so perfect, that they neither drop a grain of rice, soil the dress, nor retain any of the food on their fingers. The custom must always be offensive to a foreign
eye, and the habit none would with to copy; yet everyone who witnesses must admire the neat way in which eating is accomplished by these really 'Children of Nature.""
"The repast concluded, the lota (vessel with water), and the luggan (to receive the water in after rinsing the hands and the mouth), are passed round. To every person who, having announced by the Ash-Shukru li'llah! (All thanks to God!) That she has finished, the attendants present first the powdered peas, called besan, which answers the purpose of soap in removing grease, &c from the fingers - and then the water in due course. Soap has not even yet been brought into fashion by the natives, except by the washermen; I have often been surprised that they have not found the use of soap a necessary article in the nursery, where the only substitute I have seen is the powdered pea."
"Lotas and laggans are articles in use with all classes of people; they must be poor indeed who do not boast of one, at least, in their family. They are always of metal, either brass, or copper lacquered over, or zinc; in some cases as with the nobility, sliver and even gold are converted into these useful articles of native comfort."
"China or glass is comparatively but little used; water is their only beverage, and this is preferred in the absence of metal basins out of the common red earthen katora (cup shaped like a vase)."
"China dishes, bowls, and basins, are used for serving many of the savory articles of food in; but it is as common in the privacy of the palace, as well as in the huts on the peasantry, to see many choice things introduced at meals served up in the rude red earthen platter; many of the delicacies of Asiatic cookery being esteemed more palatable from the earthen flavor of the new vessel in which it is served."
"China tea-sets are very rarely found in the zananah, tea being used by the natives more as a medicine than a refreshment, except by such gentlemen as have frequent intercourse with the "Sahib Log" (English gentry), among whom they acquire a taste for this delightful beverage. The ladies, however, must have a severe cold to induce them to partake of the beverage even as a remedy, but by no means as a luxury. I imagined that the inhabitants of a zananah were sadly deficient in actual comforts, when I found, upon my first arrival in India, that there were no preparations for breakfast going forward; everyone seemed engaged in pan-eating, and smoking the huqqah but no breakfast after the morning namaz. I was, however, soon satisfied that they felt no sort of privation, as the early meal so common in Europe has never been introduced in Eastern circles. Their first meal is a good substantial dinner, at ten, eleven, or twelve o clock, after which follows pan and the huqqah; to this succeeds a sleep of two or three hours, providing it does not impede the duty of prayer - the pious. I ought to remark, would give up every indulgence which would prevent the discharge of this duty. The second meal follows in twelve hours from the first, and consists of the same substantial fare; after which they usually sleep until the dawn of day is near at hand."
The huqqah (pipe) is almost in general use with females. It is a common practice with the lady of the house to present the huqqah she is smoking to her favorite guest. This mark of attention is always to be duly appreciated; but such is the deference paid to parents, that a son can rarely be persuaded by an indulgent father or mother to smoke a huqqah in their revered presence; this praise-worthy feeling originates not in fear, but fear genuine respect. The parents entertain for their son the most tender regard; and the father makes him both his companion and his friend; yet the most familiar endearments do not lessen the feeling of reverence a good son entertains for his father. This is one among the many samples of patriarchal life, and which I can never witness in real life, without feeling respect for the persons who follow up the patterns I have been taught to venerate in our Holy Scripture."
"The huqqah (pipe) as an indulgence or a privilege, is a great definer of etiquette. In the presence of the king or reigning nawab, no subject, however high he may rank in blood or royal favor, can presume to smoke. In native courts, on state occasions, huqqahs are presented only to the Governor-General, the Commander-in-Chief, or the Resident at his court, who are considered equal in rank, and therefore entitled to the privilege of smoking with him; and they cannot consistently resist the intended honor. Should they dislike smoking, a hint is readily understood by the huqqah bardar to bring the huqqah, charged with the materials, without the addition of fire. Applications of the munhnal (mouth-piece) to the mouth, indicates a sense of the honor conferred." (Observations on the Musalmans of India, vol i. p. 304.)
Haris ibn Naufal ibn al-Haris ibn 'Abdi 'l-Muttalib, was a Companion of some consequence; he lived close to the house of the Prophet, and had frequently to make room as the Prophet's Harim extended itself [HOUSES.]
Haris ibn Hisham ibn al-Mughirah, is another Companion, who lived at Makkah.
Haris son of Suwaid ibn Samit, the poet, was executed at Uhud.
the Qur'an. They are said to be two angel who, in consequence of their compassion for the frailties of mankind, were sent down to earth to be tempted. They both sinned, and being permitted to choose whether they would be punished now or hereafter, chose the former, and are still suspended by the feet at Babel in a rocky pit, where they are great teachers of magic.
The account of these two angels in the Qur'an is given in Surah ii. 96:-
"They (the Jews) followed what the devils taught in the reign of Solomon: not that Solomon was unbelieving, but the devils were unbelieving. Sorcery did they teach to men, and what had been revealed to the two angels, Harut and Marut, at Babel. Yet no man did these two teach until they had said, 'We are only a temptation. Be not then an unbeliever.' From these two did men learn how to cause division between man and wife; but unless be leave of God, no man did they harm thereby. They learned, indeed, what would harm and not profit them; and yet they knew that he who brought that art should have no part in the life to come! And vile the price for which they have sold themselves, - if they had but known it!"
Surah ii. 103: "Many of the people of the Book (i.e. Jews and Christians) desire to bring you back to unbelief after ye have believed, out of selfish envy, even after the truth hath been clearly shewn them."
Surah cxiii. 5 : "I seek refuge... from the envy of the envious when he envies."
AL-HASAN . The fifth Khalifah. The eldest son of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, by her husband the Khalifah 'Ali. Born A.H. 3. Died A.H. 49. He succeeded his father 'Ali as Khalifah A.H. 41, and reigned about six months. He resigned the Caliphate in favor of Mu'awiyah, and was eventually poisoned by his wife Ja'dah who was suborned to commit the deed by Yazid, the son of Mu'awiyah, by a promise of marrying her, which promise he did not keep. Al-Hasan had twenty children, fifteen sons and five daughter, from whom are descended one section of the great family of Sayids, or Lords, the descendants of the Prophet. The history of al-Hasan, together with the tragical death of his brother al-Husain, form the plot of the miracle play of Muharram. [HUSAIN, MUHARRAM, SAIYID.]
HASHIM . The great grandfather of Muhammad. Born, according to M.C. de Perceval, A.D. 464. Sprenger places his birth in A.D. 442. He married Salmah, by whom he had a son 'Abdu 'l-Muttalib, the father of Abdu'llah, who was the father of Muhammad. The author of the Qamus says Hashim's original name was 'Amr, but he was surnamed Hashim on account of the hospitality in distributing bread (kashm, to break bread) to the pilgrims at Makkah.
HASHR . Lit. "Going forth from one place, and assembling in another." Hence the word is used in the Qur'an in two senses, viz. An emigration and an assembly, eg Surah lix. 2, "It was He who drove forth from their homes those people of the book (i.e. Jews) who misbelieved, at the first emigration. " (Hence al-Hashr is the title of the LIXth Surah of the Qur'an) Surah xxvii. 17: "And his hosts of the jinn and men and birds were assembled by Solomon."
The term Yaumu 'l-Hashr is therefore used for the Day of Resurrection, or the day when the dead shall migrate from their graves and assemble for judgement. It occurs in this sense in the Qur'an:-
"Verily we cause to live, and we cause to die. To us shall all return."
"On the day when the earth shall swiftly cleave asunder over the dead, will this gathering be easy to Us.
Surah iv. 7: "God sufficeth for taking account."
Idem. 88: "God of all things takes an account."
Surah xxxiii. 39: "God is good enough at reckoning up."
It is related in the Traditions that the Prophet on the day of battle with the Banu Quraizah, cried out, "O Hassan ibn Sabit, abuse the infidels in your verse, for verily Gabriel helps you!" (Mishkat, book xxii ch. ix. pt. 1.) [POETRY.]
HAUZU 'L-KAUSAR . A pond or river in Paradise. According to Muhammad's sayings in the Traditions (Mishkat, book xxiii. ch. xii), it is more than a month's journey in circumference, its waters are whiter than snow and sweeter than honey mixed with milk, and those who drink of it shall never thirst. The word kausar occurs once in the Qur'an, namely Surah cviii., which derives therefrom its title, and where its translation and meaning is doubtful. "Verily, we have given thee al-Kausar." Al-Baizawi, the commentator, says it either means that which is good or abundant; or the pond al-Kausar which is mentioned in the Traditions.
HAWALAH . A legal term signifying the removal or transfer of a debt by way of security or corroboration from that of the original debtor to that person to whom it is transferred. (Hidayah, vol. ii, p. 606.)
HAWAMIM . A title given to the seven chapters of the Qur'an which begin with the letters Ha Mim, namely, XL, Suratu 'l-Mu'min; XLI, Suratu Fussilat; XLII, Suratu 'sh-Shura; XLIII, Suratu 'l-Zukhruf; XLIV, Suratu, Suratu 'd-Dukhan; XLV, Suratu 'l-Jasiyah; XLVI, Suratu 'l-Ahqf.
For an explanation of the letters H M are the commencement of these Surah, see HA MIM.
It is related in the Traditions that a man said to the Prophet, "I am old, and my memory is imperfect, and my tongue is stiff;" and the Prophet replied, "Then repeat three of the Surahs beginning with Ha Mim." (Mishkat, book viii. ch. i. pt. 3.)
HAWARI . The word used in the Qur'an (Surahs iii. 45; lxi. 14) for the Apostles of Jesus. Al-Baizawi, the Muhammadan commentator, says it is derived from hawar, "to be white", and was given to the disciples of Jesus, either on account of their purity of life and sincerity; or because they were respectable men and wore white garments. In the Traditions (Mishkat, book i ch. vi. pt. 1) it is used for the followers of all the Prophets. The word may be derived from the Ęthiopic hawryra, "To go, to be sent."
HAWAZIN . A great and warlike tribe of Arabia in the days of Muhammad, who dwelt between Makkah and at-Ta'if. Muhammad defeated them at the battle of Hunain, A.H. 8, a victory which in the Qur'an, Surah ix. 26, is ascribed to angelic aid. (See Muir's Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 432.
HAYA . "Shame, pudency, modesty." The word does not occur in the Qur'an, but in the Traditions it is said, "Allahu hayiyun, i.e. "God acts with modesty." By which is understood that God hates that which is immodest or shameless. Muhammad is related to have said, "Modesty (haya) brings nothing but good." (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. xix.)
HAYAT . "Life." The word frequently occurs in the Qur'an e.g.. Surah xviii. 44, "Wealth and children are an adornment of the life of this world." Surah ii. 25, "For you in retaliation is the life, O ye possessors of mind!"
Al-Hayatu 'd-bunya, "the worldly life," is a term used in the Qur'an for those things in this world which prevent from attaining to the eternal life of the next world.
Surah ii. 80: "Those who have brought this worldly life with the future, the torment shall not be lightened from them nor shall they be helped."
Surah ii. 18: "They put their fingers in their ears at the thunder-clap for fear of death." (Hazara 'l-Maut.) Idem. 244: "Dost thou not look at those who left their homes by thousands for fear of death."
1. Hazratu 'l-ghaibi 'l-mutlaq, That existence which is absolutely unknown i.e. God.
2. Hazratu 'sh-shakadati 'l-mutlaqah, Those celestial (ajram) and terrestrial (ajsam) existences which are evident to the senses.
3. Hazratu 'alami 'l-arwah, That existence which consists of the spiritual world of angels and spirits.
4. Hazratu 'alami 'l-misal, That existence, which is the unseen world, where there is the true likeness of everything which exists on the earth.
5. Hazratu 'l-jami'ah, The collective existence of the four already mentioned.
HAZRAH . Lit. "Presence." This title of respect has no equivalent in English, as it is employed in a variety of acceptions. Applied to an officer of rank, it would mean "your honor"; to a clergyman, "your reverence"; to a king, "your majesty". When applied to the names of the prophets, apostles, or saints, it expresses the sacredness of his office and character, i.e. our Saviour is called Hazratu 'Isa, and the Virgin Mary, Hazratu Maryum. The word is much used in Persian theological works. It is seldom used in this sense in Arabic books. Hazratu 'llah, "the presence of God", is an Arabic term in prayer.
HEAD Arabic ra's, ras . Heb. . The author of the Raddu 'l Muhtar, vol. i, p. 670 says:- "It is abominable (makruh) to say the prayers with the head uncovered, it it be done from laziness, but it is of no consequence if a Muslim say his prayers with his head uncovered from a sense of humility and unworthiness. But still it is better not to uncover the head, for humility is a matter connected with the heart."
Amongst Muhammadans it is considered a sign of disrespect to receive a visitor with the head uncovered; consequently on the approach of a visitor the turban or cap is immediately placed on the head.
There is no general custom as to shaving the head or otherwise. In Afghanistan, Muhammadans generally shave the head, but the Baluchis and many other Muslim tribes wear long hair.
The Egyptians shave all the rest of the hair, or leave only a small tuft (called shushah) upon the crown of the head. Mr. Lane says: This last custom (which is almost universal among them) is said to have originated in the fear that if the Muslim should fall into the hands of an infidel, and be slain, the latter might cut off the head of his victim, and finding no hair by which to hold it, put his impure hand into the mouth, in order to carry it, for the beard might not be sufficiently long; but was probably adopted from the Turks, for it is generally neglected by the Badawis, and the custom of shaving the head is of late origin among the Arabs in general, and practiced for the sake of cleanliness.
HEAVEN Arabic Sama' ; Persian Asman ; Heb. , which expresses the firmament as distinguished from Firdaus, or Paradise, the abodes of bliss. [PARADISE.] In the Qur'an it is stated that there are seven paths, or stages, in heaven. Surah xxiii. 17: "And we have created above you seven paths, nor are we heedless of the creation." By which the commentators understand that they are paths of the angels and of the celestial bodies. The creation of the heaven is declared to be for God's glory and nor for His pastime. Surah xxi. 16: "We created not the heaven and the earth and that which is between them, by way of sport."
It is the general belief that at the last day the heavens will fall, but that they are now upheld by God's power. Surah xxii. 64: "He hold up the heaven from falling on the earth save his bidding."
According to Muhammadan traditions (Mishkat, book xxiv. ch. vii.), Muhammad during the mi'raj or nigh journey, passed through these seven heavens, and they are stated to be as follows: (1) That which is of pure virgin silver and which is Adam's residence; (2) of pure gold, which is John the Baptist's and Jesus'; (3) of pearls, which is Joseph's; (4) of white gold, which is Enoch's; (5) of silver which is Aaron's; (6) of ruby and garnet, which is Moses'; (7) which is Abraham's. These accounts are, however, most confused; for in some books and according to popular tradition, the fourth and not the second heaven is assigned to Jesus.
This view is in harmony with the seven spheres of Ptolemy, the first of which is that of the moon, the second Mercury, the third Venus, the fourth the Sun, the fifth Mars, the sixth Jupiter, the seventh Saturn; each of which orbs was supposed by the ancients to revolve round the earth in its proper sphere. Muhammad said the distance between each heavenly region is five hundred year's journey. (Mishkat, book xxiv. ch. i, pt. 3).
The Rabbis spoke of two heavens (cf. Deut. X. 14), "The heaven and the heaven of heavens," or seven Clem. Alex. Strom., iv. 7, 636). "Resch Lakisch dixit septum esse coelos, quorum nomina sunt, 1. velum; 2. expansum; 3. nubes; 4. habitaculum; 5. habitation; 6. sedes fixa; 7. Araboth. (See Wetstein, ad. 2 Cor. Xii. 2). St. Paul's expression, , 2 Cor. xii. 2, has led to some discussion, for Grotius says that the Jews divided the heaven into three parts. (1) Nuubiferum, the atmosphere; (2) Astriferum, the firmament; and (3) Empyreum, the abode of God. But the statement, however, does not seem to be supported by any known Rabbinic authority.
HELL. The place of torment is most frequently spoken of in the Qur'an and Traditions as an-Nar, "the fire," but the word Jahannam occurs about thirty times. It is said to have seven portals or divisions. Surah xv. 44: "Verily, hell (juhannam) is promised to all together (who follow Satan). It has seven portals, and at every door there is a separate party of them."
The Persian word used for hell in books of theology is dozakh.
The seven divisions of hell are given by Muslim commentators as follows: -
1. Jahannam , the purgatorial hell for all Muhammadans. For according to the Qur'an, all Muslims will pass through the regions of hell. Surah xix. 72: "There is not one of you who will not go down to it (hell), that is settled and decided by the Lord."
2. Laza Surah xcvii. 5: "For Laza dragging by the scalp, shall calim him who turned his back and went away, and amassed and hearded."
3. Al-Hutamah . Surah civ. 4:- "Nay! For verily he shall be flung into al-Hutamah;
And who shall teach thee what al-Hutamah is?
It is God's kindled fire,
Which shall mount above the hearts of the damned;
It shall verily rise over them like a vault,
On outstretched columns."
4. Sa'ir Surah iv. 11: "Those who devour the property of orphans unjustly, only devour into their bellies fire, and they broil in sa'ir."
(The word occurs in fourteen other places.)
5. Saqar . Surah liv. 47: "The sinners are in error and excitement. On the day when they shall be dragged into the fire on their faces! Taste ye the touch of saqar!"
Surah xxiv. 44: "What drove you into saqar?"
6. Al-Jahim . Surah ii. 113: "Thou shalt not be questioned as to the fellows of al-Jahim" (Ashabu 'l-Jahim.)
(The word occurs in twenty other places.)
7. Hawiyah . Surah ci. 8: "As for him whose balance is light, his dwelling shall be Hawiyah."
The Muhammadan commentators, with the utter recklessness which so characterizes their writings, distribute these seven stations as follows (see al-Baghawi, al-Baizawi, and others): (1) Jahannam, the purgatorial hell for Muslims. (2) Laza, a blazing fire for Christians. (3) Al-Hutamah, an intense fire for the Jews. (4) Sa'ir, a flaming fire for the Sabians. (5) Saqar, a scorching fire for the Magi. (6) Al-Jahim, a huge hot fire for idolaters. (7) Hawiyah, bottomless pit for the hypocrites. A reference to the Qur'an will prove that there is not the least reason for assigning these to their respective tenants beyond the sentence already quoted: "At each portal a separate party."
The teaching of the Qur'an (which is chiefly confined to those Surahs which, chronologically arranged, are the earliest), is as follows:-
Surah xxiv. 26-34 (generally held to be the second Surah composed by Muhammad, and relating to al-Walid ibn al-Mughirah, a person of note amongst the unbelieving Makkans):-
"We will surely cast him into Saqar.
And who shall teach thee what Saqar is)
It leaveth nought, it spareth not.
Blackening the skin.
Over it are nineteen angels.
None but the angels have we made guardians of the fire (ashabu 'n-nar): nor have we made this to be their number but to perplex the unbelievers and that they who possess the Scriptures may be certain of the Truth, and that they who believe may increase their faith;
And that they to whom the Scriptures have been given, and the believers, may not doubt;
And that the infirm of heart and the unbelievers may say, What meaneth God by this parables?
Thus God misleadeth whom He will, and whom He will He doth guide aright; and none knoweth the armies of thy Lord but Himself; and this is no other than a warning to mankind"
Surah lxxxviii. 1-7:-
"Hath the tidings of the day that shall overshadow reached thee?
Downcast on that day shall be the countenances of some;
Travailing and worn,
Burnt at the scorching fire,
Made to drink from a fountain fiercely boiling.
No food shall they have but the fruit of zari' (a bitter thorn),
Which shall not fatten nor appease their hunger."
Surah xxviii. 21-30:-
"Hell (Jahannam) truly shall be a place of snares,
The home of transgressors,
To abide therein ages;
No coolness shall they taste therein nor any drink.
Save boiling water and running sores;
For they looked not forward to their account;
And they gave the lie to our signs charging them with falsehood;
But we noted and wrote down all;
'Taste this then: and we will give you increase of nought but torment.'"
The above are all Madinah Surahs composed in the earlier stage of Muhammad's mission. The allusions to heal in the Makkan Surahs are brief and are in every case directed against unbelievers in the Prophet's mission, and not against sin e.g. Surah ix. 69, "God hath promised to the hypocrites (i.e. dissemblers as far as Islam was concerned), men and women, and unto the unbelievers hell-fire to dwell therein for ever."
The teaching of Muhammad in the Traditions is much more specific, but it is impossible to assign a date for these traditions, even assuming them to be authentic. They are given on the authority of al-Bukhari and Muslim (Mishkat, book xxiii. ch. xv.):-
"'The fire of the world is one part of seventy parts of hell fire.' It was said, 'O Prophet of God! Verily the fire of the world would be sufficient for punishing. The Pro-
phet replied, 'Hell-fire has been made more than the fire of the world by sixty-nine parts, every part of which is like the fire of the world.'"
"Verily, the easiest of the infernals in punishment, is he who shall have both his shoes and thongs of them of fire, by which the brains of his head boil, like the boiling of a copper furnace; and he will not suppose that anyone is more severely punished than himself; whilst verily, he is the least so."
"On the Day of Resurrection, the most luxurious of the world will be brought, and dipped once in the fire; after that it will be said, 'O child of Adam, did you ever see any good, or did comfort ever pass by you in the world?' He will say, 'I swear by God I never saw any good, nor did comfort ever come near me.' And a man of the severest distresses and troubles in the world will be brought into paradise; and it will be said to him, 'O son of Adam, did you ever see any trouble, and did distress ever come to you in the world?' And he will say, I swear by God, O my Lord, I never suffered troubles in the world, nor did I ever see hardship.'"
"There are some of the infernals that will be taken by the fire up to their ankles, and some up to their knees, and some up to their waist, and some up to their necks."
"Hell-fire burnt a thousand years so that it became red, and burnt another thousand years till it became black; then hell-fire is black and dark, and never has any light."
"Verily, hot water will be poured upon the heads of the infernals, and will penetrate into their bellies, and will cut to pieces everything within them; so that they will come out at their feet; and this is the meaning of the word of God, 'Boiling water shall be poured on their heads, and everything in their bellies shall be dissolved thereby', after that, they will be made as they were."
"The infernals shall be drenched with yellow water, draught after draught, and it will be brought to their mouths and they will be disgusted at it; and when very near, it will scorch their faces, and when they drink it it will tear their entrails to pieces. God says, 'They who must dwell for ever in hell-fire, will have the boiling water given them to drink which shall burst their bowels'; and God will say, 'If the infidels complain of thirst, they shall be assisted with water like molten copper, which will fry their faces; it will be a shocking beverage.'"
For most of these circumstances relating to hell and the state of the damned, Muhammad was in all probability indebted to the Jews, and in part, to the Magians, both of whom agree in making seven distinct apartments in hell. (Nishmat hayim f. 32; Gemar. Arubin f. 19; Zohar ad. Exod. xxvi 2 & c. And Hyde de Rel. Vet. Pers., p. 245), though they vary in other particulars.
The former place an angel as a guard over each of these infernal apartments, and suppose he will intercede for the miserable wretches there imprisoned, who will openly acknowledge the justice of God in their condemnation. (Midrash, Yalkut Shemeni, pt. 11, f. 116.) They also teach that the wicked will suffer a diversity of punishments, and that by intolerable cold (Zohar, ad. Exod. xix.) as well as heat, and that their faces shall become black (Yalkut Shemeni, ubi sup f. 86); and believe those of their own religion shall also be punished in hell here-after according to their crimes (for they hold that few or none will be found exactly righteous as to deserve no punishment at all,) but will soon be delivered thence, when they shall be sufficiently purged from their sins by their father Abraham, or at the intercessation of him or some other of the prophets. (Nishmat hayim, f. 82; Gemar. Arubin, f. 19.)
The Magians allow but one angel to preside over all the seven hells, who is named by them Vanand Yezad, and, as they teach, assigns punishments proportionate to each person's crimes, restraining also the tyranny and excessive cruelty of the devil, who would, it left to himself, torment the damned beyond their sentence. (Hyde, de Rei. Vet. Pers., p. 182.) Those of this religion do also mention and describe various kinds of torments wherewith the wicked will be punished in the next life; among which, though they reckon extreme cold to be one, yet they do not admit fire, out of respect, as it seems, to that element, which they take to be the representation of the divine nature, and therefore they rather choose to describe the damned souls as suffering by other kinds of punishment, such as an intolerable stink, the stinging and biting of serpents, and wild beasts, the cutting and tearing of the flesh by the devils, excessive hunger and thirst, and the like. (See Eundem, ibid., p. 399; Sale's Pre. Dis.
The author of the Sharhu 'l-Muwaqif, p. 586, also says: "It is agreed amongst all orthodox Muslims that all unbelievers, without exception, will be consigned to the fire for ever, and that they will never be free from torment." "But," he adds, "there are certain heretics, who call themselves Muslims, who deny the eternity of the torments, the fire. For, they say, it is an essential property of all things fleshly that they come to an end. And, moreover, it is not possible for a thing to exist which goes on burning for ever. But to this we reply that God is all powerful and can do as He likes."
The sect called as-Samamiyah, founded by Samamah ibn Ashras an-Numairi, say: "The Jews, and Christians, and Majusi, and Zanadiqah, will, after the Day of Judgement, return to dust, just as the animals and the little children of unbelievers do." (Sharhu 'l-Muwaqif, p. 633.)
The same writer says (p. 687): "Besides those who are unbelievers, all those (Muslims) who are sinners and have committed great sins (kaba'ir), will go to hell; but they will not remain there always, for it has been said in the Qur'an (Surah xcix. 7), "He who does an atom of good shall see its reward."
With reference to the verse in the Qur'an, which distinctly states that all Muslims shall enter hell (Surah xix 78., "There is not one of you that shall not go down to it"), al-Kamalan, the commentators say, that according to extant traditions, all Muslims will enter hell, but it will be cool and pleasant to those who have not committed great sins; or, according to some writers, they will simply pass along the bridge Sirat, which is over the infernal regions.
"In the autumn of this year (A.D. 628), Heraclius fulfilled his vow of thanksgiving for the wonderful success which had crowned his arms (in Persia); he preformed on foot the pilgrimage from Edessa to Jerusalem, where the 'true cross', recovered from the Persians, was with solemnity and pomp restored to the Holy Sepulchre. While preparing for this journey, or during the journey itself, an uncouth despatch in the Arabic character was laid before Heraclius. It was forwarded by the Governor of Bostra, into whose hands it had been delivered by an Arab chief. The epistle was addressed to the Emperor himself, from 'Mahomet the Apostle of God', the rude impression of whose seal could be deciphered at the foot. In strange and simple accents like those of the Prophets of old, it summoned Heraclius to acknowledge the mission of Mahomet, to cast aside the idolatrous worship of Jesus and his Mother, and to return to the Catholic faith of the one and only God. The letter was probably cast aside, or preserved, it may be, as a strange curiosity, the effusion of some harmless fanatic." (Muirs Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 383.)
Tradition, of course, has another story. "Now the Emperor was at this time at Hims, performing a pedestrian journey, in fulfillment of the vow which he had made, that, if the Romans overcame the Persians, he would travel on foot from Constantinople to Aelia (Jerusalem). So having read the letter, he commanded his chief men to meet him in the royal camp at Hims. And thus he addressed them: - 'Ye chiefs of Rome! Do you desire safety and guidance, so that your kingdom shall be firmly established, and that ye may follow the commands of Jesus, Son of Mary?' 'And what, O King! shall secure us this?' 'Even that ye follow the Arabian Prophet,' siad Heraclius. Where-upon they all started aside like wild asses of the desert, each raising his cross and waving it aloft in the air. Whereupon Heraclius despairing of their conversion, and unwilling to lose his kingdom, desisted, saying that he had only wished to test their constancy and faith, and that he was now satisfied by this display of firmness and devotion. The courtiers bowed their heads, and so the Prophet's despatch was rejected (Katibu 'l-Waqidi. p 50, quoted by Muir, in a note to the above passage.)
The letter written by Muhammad to Heraclius is, according to a tradition by Ibn 'Abbas, as follows:-
"In the name of God the Merciful, the Compassionate. This letter is from Muhammad the Messenger of God, to Heraql, chief of ar-Rum. Peace be upon whosoever has gone on the straight road! After this, I say verily I call thee to Islam. Embrace Islam and God will give thee a double reward. If ye reject Islam, then on thee shall rest the sins of thy subjects and followers. O ye people of the Book (i.e. Christians) come to a creed which is laid down plainly between us and you, that we will not serve other than God, nor associate aught with Him, nor take each other for lords rather than God. But if they turn back, then say, 'Bear witness that we are Muslims.'" (Qur'an, iii. 57.) (See Sahihu Muslim, p. 98.)
The Shi'ah traditions give the above letter almost verbatim. (See Merrick's Hayatu 'l-Qulub, p. 89.)
"Not long after, another despatch, bearing the same seal, and couched in similar terms, reached the court of Heraclius. It was addressed to Harith VII., Prince of the Bani Ghassan, who forwarded it to the Emperor, with an address from himself, soliciting permission to chastise the audacious imposter. But Heraclius regarding the ominous voice from Arabia beneath his notice, forbade the expedition, and desired that Harith should be in attendance at Jerusalem, to swell the imperial train at the approaching visitation of the temple. Little did the Emperor imagine that the kingdom which, unperceived by the world, this obscure Pretender was founding in Arabia, would in a few short years wrest from his grasp that Holy City and the fair provinces which, with so much toil and so much glory, he had just recovered from the Persians!" (Muir's Life of Mahomet, p. 384.)
(For the Shi'ah account of the embassy to Heraclius, see Merrick's Hayatu 'l-Qulub, p. 88.)
HERMAPHRODITE (Arabic , Khunsa) is a person who is possessed of the organs of generation of both man and woman, and for whose spiritual existence the Muhammadan law legislates (vide Hidayah, vol. iv. p. 559). For example, it is a rule, with respect to equivocal hermaphrodites, that they are required to observe all the more comprehensive points of the spiritual law, but not those concerning the propriety of which, in regard to them, any doubt exists. In public prayer they must take their station between the men and the women, but in other respects observe the customs of women. (Idem, p. 561.)
HIDAD . "Mourning." The state of a widow who abstains from scents, ornaments, &c, on account of the death of her husband. Hidad must be observed for a period of four months and tem days. (Hidayah, vol. i, p. 370.)
HIDAYAH . Lit. "Guidance." The title of a well known book on Sunni law, and frequently quoted in the present work. There are many Muhammadan works entitled al-Hidayah, but this is called Hidayah f'il-furu', or "a guidance in particular points." It was composed by the Shaikh Burhanu 'd-din 'Ali, who was born at Mrghinan in Transoxania, about A.H. 530 (A.D. 1135), and died A.H. 593.
HIGHWAY ROBBERY Arabic qat'u 't-tariq . Persian rahzani. Highway robbery is a very heinous offence according to Muhammadan law, the punishment of which has been fixed by the Qur'an (Surah v. 37): The recompense of those who was against God and His apostle, and go about to enact violence on the earth, is that they be slain or crucified, or have their alternate hands and feet cut, or be banished from the land." According to the Hidayah, highway robbers are of four kinds, viz. (1) Those who are seized before they have robbed or murdered any person, or put any person in fear. These are to be imprisoned by the magistrate until their repentance is evident. (2) Those who have robbed but have not murdered. These are to have their right hand and left foot struck off. (3) Those who have committed murder but have not robbed. Those are punished by death. (4) Those who have committed both robbery and murder. These are punished according to the option of the magistrate. If he please, he can first cut off a hand and foot, and then put them to death by the sword, or by crucifixion; or he may kill them at once without inflicting amputation. If any one among a band of robbers be guilty of murder, the punishment of death must be inflicted upon the whole band.
(1) A term used for the seclusion of women enjoined in the Qur'an, Surah xxxiii. 53: "And when ye ask them (the Prophet's wives) for an article, ask them from behind a curtain; that is purer for your hearts and for their."
(2) A term used by the Sufi mystics for that which obscures the light of God in the soul of man ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dict. Of Sufi Terms.)
HIJAZ . Lit. "A barrier or anything similar by which these things are separated." The name al-Hijaz is given to that tract of a country which separates Najd from Tahamah, and is an irregular parallelogram about 250 miles long and 150 miles wide. It may be considered the holy land of Muhammadans, for within its limits are the sacred cities of al-Madinah and Makkah, and most of its places are someway connected with the history of Muhammad. It is a barren district consisting of sandy plains towards the shore and rocky hills in the interior; and so destitute of provisions as to depend, even for the necessaries of life, on the supplies of other countries. Among the fertile spots is Wadi Fatimah, which is well watered, and produces grain and vegetables. Sajrah abounds in date trees. At-Ta'if, seventy-two miles from Makkah, is celebrated for its gardens, and the neighborhood of al-Madinah has cultivated fields. The towns on the coast are Jiddah and Yambu', the former being considered the port of Makkah, from which it is distant about fifty-five miles, and the latter that of al-Madinah. Al-Hijaz is bounded eastward by a lofty range of mountains, which, near at-Ta'if, take the name of Jabalu 'l-Qura. The scenery there is occasionally beautiful and picturesque; the small rivulets that descend from the rocks afford nourishment to the plains below, which are clothed with verdure and shady trees. The vicinity of Makkah is bleak and bare; for several miles it is surrounded with thousands of hills all nearly of one height; their dark and naked peaks rise one behing another, appearing at a distance like cocks of hay. The most celebrated of these are as-Safa, 'Arafah, and al-Marwah, which have always been connected with the religious rites of the Muhammadan pilgrimage.
(1) In the language of the law it signifies an interdiction of action with respect to a particular person, who is either an infant, an idiot, or a slave. (Hidayah, vol. iii, p. 468.)
(2) Al-Hijr is a territory in the province of al-Hijaz, between al-Madinah and Syria, where the tribe of Samud dwelt. It is the title of the xvth Surah of the Qur'an in the 80th verse of which the word occurs: "The inhabitants of al-Hijr likewise accused the messenger of God of imposture."
The date of Muhammad's flight from Makkah was the fourth day of the first month of Rabi', which by the calculation of M. Caussin de Perceval was June 20th, A.D. 622. The Hijrah, or the era of the "Hegira", was instituted seventeen years later by the Khalifah 'Umar, which dates from the first day of the first lunar month of the year when the era was established fell of Thursday the 15th of July
A.D.622. But although 'Umar instituted the official era, according to at-Tabari, the custom of referring to events as happening before or after the Hijrah originated with Muhammad himself.
Professor H.H. Wilson in his Glossary of Terms gives the following method of ascertaining the Muhammadan and Christian years:-
Multiply the Hijrah year by 2,977, the difference between 100 solar and as many lunar Muhammadan years; divide the product by 100, and deduct the quotient from the Hijrah year; add to the result 621,569 (the decimal being the equivalent of the 15th July, plus 12 days for the change of the Kalendar); and the quotient will be the Christian year from the date at which the Muhammadan year begins; thus Hij. 1269 * 2.977 = 3777.8, which divided by 100 = 37.778 and 1269 - 37.778 = 1231.222; this + 621.569 = 1852.791, the decimals corresponding to 9 months, and 15 days, i.e. the 15th of October, which is the commencement of the Hij. Year 1269. The reverse formula for finding the corresponding Hijrah year to a given Christian year, is thus laid down: Subtract 622 from the current year; multiply the result by 1.0307; cut off two decimals and add .46; the sum will be the year, which, when it has a surplus decimal, requires the addition of 1; thus 1852-622=1230; 1260 * 1.0307=1267.761; 1267.76+.46=1268.22; add therefore 1, and we have the equivalent Hijrah year 1269.
The Persian era of Yezdegird commenced on June 16, A.D. 632, or ten years later than the Hijrah.
HIKMAH . Al-hikmah, "the wisdom," is a term used by the Sufi mystics to express a knowledge of the essence, attributes, specialities, and results of things as they exist and are seen, with the study of their cause, effects, and uses. This is said to be the wisdom mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah ii. 272: "He (God) bringeth the wisdom (al-hikmah) unto whom He willet."
The Sufis say there are four kinds of wisdom expressed in the term al-hikmah: -
(1) Al-hikmatu 'l-Mantuqah, "spoken wisdom," which is made known in the Qur'an or in the Tariqah, "the Path" (i.e. the Sufi path.)
(2) Al-hikmatu 'l-maskutah, "unspoken wisdom." Such as understood only by Sufi mystics, and not by the natural man.
(3) Al-hikmatu 'l-majhulah, "unknown wisdom," or those acts of the Creator the wisdom of which is unknown to the creature, such as the infliction of pain upon the creatures of God, the death of infants, or the eternal fire of hell. Things which we believe, but which we do not understand.
(4) Al-hikmatu 'l-jami'ah, "collective wisdom," or the knowledge of the truth (haqq), and acting upon it, and the perception of error (batil) and the rejction of it. ('Abdu r-Razzaq's DIct. Of Sufi Terms.)
HILFU 'L-FUZUL . A confederacy formed by the descendants of Hashim, Zuhrah, and Taim, in the house of 'Abdu 'llah ibn Jud'an at Makkah, for the suppression of violence and injustice at the restoration of peace after the Sacrilegious war. Muhammad was then a youth, and Sir William Muir says this confederacy "aroused an enthusiasm in the mind of Mahomet, which the exploits of the sacrilegious war failed to kindle."
HILM . Being mild, gentle, clement. Restraining oneself at a time when the spirit is roused to anger. Delaying in punishing a tyrant. (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat.) Hence al-Halim, the Clement, is one of the attributes of God.
HIMA . Lit. "guarded, forbidden." A portion of land reserved by the ruler of a country as a grazing ground. (See Mishkat, book xii. ch. i, pt. i.) "Know ye that every prince has a grazing ground which is forbidden to the people, and know ye the grazing place (hima) is the thing forbidden by Him to men."
HINNA' . The Lawsonia inermis, or Eastern privet, used for dying the hands and feet on festive occasions [MARRIAGE.] Muhammad enjoined the use of hinna', and approved of women staining their hands and feet with it. He also dyed his own beard with it, and recommended its use for this purpose (Mishkat, book xx. c. 4.) It has therefore become a religious custom and is sunnah.
rental, and lease. The hirer is termed ajir, or mu'jir. The person who receives the rent is the musta'jir.
The following are some of the chief points in the Sunni law with regard to ijaraj, and for further particulars the reader must refer in English to Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. iii p. 312, or in Arabic to such works as the Durru 'l-Mukhtar, Fatawa-i-'Alamgiri, and the Raddu 'l-Muhtar, in which works it is treated in the Babu 'l-Ijarah.
A contract of hire, or rental, or lease, is not valid unless both the usufruct and the hire be particularly know and specified, because there is a traditional saying of the Prophet, "If a person hire another let him first inform him of the wages he is to receive.
A workman is not entitled to anything until his work is finished, but the article wrought upon may be detained until the workman be paid his full wages, and the workman is not responsible for any loss or damage in the article during such detention. If a person hire another to carry a letter to al-Basrah and bring back an answer, and he accordingly go to al-Basrah and there find the person dead to whom the letter was addressed, and come back, and return the letter, he is not entitled to any wages whatever! The strange ruling is according to Abu Hanifah and two of his disciples, but the Imam Muhammad says the messenger aught to be paid.
It is lawful to hire a house or shop for the purpose of residence, although no mention be made of the business to be followed in it, and the lessee is at liberty to carry on any business he pleases, unless it be injurious to the building. For example, a blacksmith or a fuller must not reside in the house, unless it is previously agreed, since the exercise of those trades would shake the building.
It is lawful to hire of lease land for the purposes of cultivation, and in this case the hirer is entitled to the use of the road leading to the land, and likewise water i.e. his turn of water) although no mention of these be made in the contract.
A lease of land is not valid unless mention is made of the article to be raised on it, not only with a view to cultivation, but also for other purposes, such as building, and so forth. Or the lesser of the land may make declaration to the effect: - "I let the land on this occasion, that the lessee shall raise on it whatever he pleases.
If a person hire unoccupied land for the purposes of building or planting, it is lawful, but on the term of the lease expiring it is incumbent on the lessee to remove his buildings and trees, and to restore the land to the lessor in such a state as may leave him no claim upon it, because houses or trees have no specific limit of existence, and if they were left on the land it might be injurious to the proprietor. But it is otherwise when the land is hired or leased for the purpose of tillage, and the term of the lease expires at a time when the grain is yet unripe. In this case, the grain must be suffered to remain upon the ground at a proportionate rent, until it is fit for reaping.
The hire of an animal is lawful, either for carriage or for riding, or for any use to which animals are applied. And if a person hire an animal to carry a burden, and the person who lets it to hire specify the nature and quantity of the article with which the hirer is to load the animal, the hirer is at liberty to load the animal with an equal quantity of any article not more troublesome or prejudicial in the carriage than wheat, such as barley, &c. The hirer is not at liberty to load the animal with a more prejudicial article than wheat (unless stipulated beforehand), such as salt or iron. For a hired animal perishing from ill-usage, the hirer is responsible.
(For the sayings of Muhammad on the subject of hire and leases, refer to the Mishkat, Babu 'l-Ijarah.)
HIRS . "Avarice, greed, eagerness." Derivatives of the word occur three times in the Qur'an. Surah ii 90: "Thou wilt find them (the Jews) the greediest of men for life." Surah iv. 128: "And ye may not have it at all in your power to treat your wives with equal justice, even though you be anxious to do so." Surah xii 104: "And yet most men, though thou ardently desire it, will not believe."
HIZANAH . Al-hizanah is the right of a mother to the custody of her children. "The mother is of all persons the best entitled to the custody of her infant children during the connubial relationship as well as after its dissolution." (Fataqa-i-'Alamgiri, vol. i, p 728.)
When the children are no longer dependent on the mother's care, the father has a right to educate and take charge of them, and is entitled to the guardianship of their person in preference to the mother. Among the Hanafis, the mother is entitled to the custody of her daughter until she arrives at puberty; but according to the other three Sunni sects, the custody continues until she is married.
There is difference of opinion as to the extent of the period of the mother's custody over her male children. The Hanafia limit it to the child's seventh year, but the Shafi'is and Malakis allow the boy the option of remaining under his mother's guardianship until he has arrived at puberty. Among the Shi'ahs, the mother is entitled to the custody of her children until they are weaned, a period limited to two years. After the child is weaned, its custody, if a male, devolves on the father, it a female, on the mother. The mother's custody of the girl continues to the seventh year.
The right of hizanah is lost by the mother if she is married to a stranger, or if she mis-
conducts herself, or if she changes her domicile so as to prevent the father or tutor from exercising the necessary supervision over the child.
Apostasy is also a bar to the exercise of the right of bizanah. A woman, consequently, who apostatizes from Islam, whether before or after the right vests in her, is disentitled from exercising or claiming the right of hizanah in respect to a Muslim child.
The custody of illegitimate children appertains exclusively to the mother and her relations. (Personal Law of Muhammadans by Syud Amir Ali, p. 214.) [GUARDIANSHIP.]
HOLY SPIRIT Arabic Ruhu 'l-Quds . The Holy Spirit is mentioned three times in the Qur'an. In the Suratu 'n-Nahl (XVIth, 104), as the inspiring agent of the Qur'an : "Say, The Holy Spirit brought it down from thy Lord in truth." And twice in the Suraty 'l-Baqarah (IInd, 81 and 254), as the divine power which aided the Lord Jesus: "and We strengthened him by the Holy Spirit" (in both verses).
The Jalalan, al-Baizawi, and the Muslim commentators in general, say this Holy Spirit was the angel Gabriel who sanctified Jesus, and constantly aided Him, and who also brought the Qur'an down from heaven and revealed it to Muhammad.
For a further consideration of the subject, see SPIRIT.
HONEY Arabic 'asal . In the Qur'an it is specially mentioned as the gift of God. Surah xvi. 70: "Thy Lord inspired the bee. 'Take to houses in the mountains, and in the trees, and in the hives they build. Then eat from every fruit and walk in the beaten paths of thy Lord.' There cometh forth from her body a draught varying in hue, in which is a cure for man."
HORSES Arabic faras , khail , pl. khuyul. Muhammad's affection for horses was very great, as was natural to an Arabian. Anas says there was nothing the Prophet was so fond of as women and horses. Abu Qatadah related that Muhammad said: "The best horses are black with white foreheads and having a white upper lip." But Abu Wahhab says the Prophet considered a bay horse with white forehead, white fore and hind legs the best. An instance of the way in which the traditionists sometimes contradict each other! (Mishkat, book xvii. c. ii.)
In the Hidayah (Arabic edition, vol. ii. p. 432) it is said that horses are of four kinds: (1) Birzaun, Burzin, a heavy draught horse brought from foreign countries. (2) 'Atiq, a first blood horse of Arabia. (3) Haun, a half-bred bourse whose mother is an Arab and father a foreigner. (4) A half-bred horse whose father is an Arab and whose mother is a foreigner.
In taking a share of plunder, a horesman is entitled to a double share, but he is not entitled to any more if he keep more horses than one.
"Whoever believes in God and in the Day of Resurrection must respect his guest."
"If a Muslim be the guest of a people and he spends the whole night without being entertained, it shall be lawful for every Muslim present to take money and grain necessary for the entertainment of the man."
"It is according to my practice that the host shall come out with his guest to the door of his house." (Mishkat, book xix. ch. ii.)
Hospitality is enjoined in the Qur'an. Surah iv. 40: "Show kindness to your parents, and to your kindred, and to orphans, and to the poor, and to your neighbor who is a stranger, and the companion who is strange and to the son of the road.
Surah vi. 31: "When the hour comes suddenly upon them."
Surah vii. 186: "They will ask you about the hour for what time it is fixed."
Surah xv. 85: "Verily the hour is surely coming."
Surah xvi. 79: "Nor is the matter of the hour aught but as the twinkling of an eye, or nigher still."
Surah xxii. 1: "Verily the earthquake of the hour is their promised time! And the hour is most severe and bitter."
HOURS OF PRAYER. The terms "Hours of Prayer" and "Canonical Hours," being used in the Christian Church (see Johnson's Engl. Canons and Canons of Cuthbert, ch. 15), we shall consider under this title the stated periods of Muhammadan prayer. [PRAYER.] They are five: (1) Fajr , daybreak; (2) Zuhr , when the sun begins to decline at midday; (3) 'Asr midway between the zuhr and maghrib; (4) Maghrib , evening; (5) 'Isha , when the night has closed in. According to the Traditions (Mishkt, book xxiv. ch. vii. pt.1), Muhammad professed to have received his instructions to say prayer five times a day during the Mi'raj, or the celebrated night journey to heaven. He said, God first ordered him to pray five times a day, but that Moses advised him to get the Almighty to reduce the number of canonical hours to five, he himself having tried fifty
times for his own people with very ill success!
It is remarkable that there is but one passage in the Qur'an, in which the stated hours of prayer are enjoined, and that it mentions only four and not five periods Suratu 'r-Rum, xxx 15, 17: "Glorify God which it is evening (masa), and at morning (subh), and to Him be praise in the heavens and in the earth - and at afternoon ('ashi), and at noon-tide (zuhr)." But al-Jalalu, the commentators say all are agreed that the term, "when it is masa" (evening or night), includes both sunset and after sunset, and therefore both the maghrib and 'isha prayers are included.
Three hours of prayer were observed by the Jews. David says, "Evening, morning, and at noon will I pray." (Ps. lv. 17.) Daniel "kneeled upon his knees three times a day." There three hours of the Jews seem to have been continued by the Apostles (ss Act iii 1), and were transmitted to the early church in succeeding ages, for Tertullian speaks of "those common hours which mark the divisions of the day, the third, sixth, and ninth, which we observe in scripture to be more solemn than the rest." (De Orat., c. 25.) And Clement of Alexandria says, "If some fix stated hours of prayer as the third, sixth, and ninth, the man of knowledge prays to God throughout his whole life." (Stom. I. vii. c. 7, sect. 40) Jerome says, "There are three times in which the knees are bent to God. Tradition assigns the third, the sixth, and the ninth hour." (Com. In Dan., c. vi. 10.)
In the third century there seems to have been five stated periods of prayer, for Basil of Cappadocia speaks of five hours as suitable for monks, namely, the morning, the third hour, the sixth, the ninth, and the evening (Regulę fusius Tract. Resp. as Qu., 37, sections 3-5.)
It is therefore probable that Muhammad obtained his idea of five stated periods of prayer during his two journeys to Syria. But he changed the time, as will be seen from the table annexed, which was drawn up by Mr. Lane at Cairo, and shows the times of Muhammadan prayer with the apparent European time of sunset, in or near the latitude of Cairo at the commencement of each zodiacal month:-
HOUSES . Arabic bait , pl. buyut; dar , pl. diyar, dur; Heb. . In the time of Muhammad the houses of the Arabs were made of a framework of jarid, or palm sticks, covered over with a cloth of camel's hair, or a curtain of a similar stuff, forming the door. Those of the better class were made of walls of unbaked bricks, and date-leaf roofs plastered over with mud and clay. Of this description were the abodes of Muhammad's family. (Burton, vol. I. p. 433.)
Sir William Muir, translating from the account given by the secretary of al-Waqidi (Life of Mahomet, new ed., p 546), says:-
"Abdallah ibn Yazid relates, that he saw the house in which the wives of the Prophet dwelt at the time when Omar ibn ('Abd) al-Aziz, the governor of Medina (about A.H. 100) demolished them. They were built of unburnt bricks and had separate apartments made of palm branches, daubed (or built up) with mud; he counted nine houses, each having separate apartments in the space from the house of Ayesha, and the gate of Mahomet to the house of Asthma, daughter of Hosein. Observing the dwelling-place of Omm Salma, he questioned her grandson concerning it; and he told him that when the Prophet was absent on the expedition to Duma, Omm Salma built up an addition to her house with a wall of unburnt bricks. When Mahomet returned, he went in to her, and asked what new building this was. She replied, 'I purposed, O Prophet, to shut out the glances of men thereby!' Mahomet answered, 'O Omm Salma! Verily the most unprofitable thing that eateth up the wealth of a believe is building.' A citizen of Medina present at
the time, confirmed this account, and added that the curtains (Anglo-Indian pardas) of the doors were of black hair cloth. He was present, he said, when the despatch of the Caliph Abd al-Malik (A.H. 86-88) was read aloud, commanding that these houses should be brought within the area of the Mosque, and he never witnessed sorer weeping than there was amongst the people of that day. One exclaimed, 'I wish, by the Lord" that they would leave these houses alone thus as they are; then would those that spring up here-after in Medina, and strangers from the ends of the earth, come and see what kind of building sufficed for the Prophet's own abode, and the sight thereof would deter men from extravagance and pride."
"There were four houses of unburnt bricks, the apartments being of palm-branches; and
THE USUAL PLAN OF AN ORDINARY HOUSE IN CENTRAL ASIA
five houses made of palm-branches built up with mud and without any separate apartments. Each was three Arabian yards in length. Some say that they had leather curtains on the doors. One could reach the roof with the hand. The house of Haritha was next to that of Mahomet. Now, whenever Mahomet took to himself a new wife, he added another house to the row, and Haritha was obliged successively to remove his house and build on the space beyond. At last this was repeated so often that the Prophet said to those around him, 'Verily, it shameth me to turn Haritha over and over again out of his house.'"
The houses of the rural poor in all parts of Islam, in Turkey, Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, and India, are usually built either of mud or of unburnt bricks. In mountainous parts of Afghanistan they are built of stones (collected from the beds of rivers) and mud. They are generally one storey high, and of one apartment in which the cattle are also housed. The roofs are flat and are formed of mud and straw laid upon branches of trees and rafters. The windows are small apertures, high up in the walls, and sometimes grated with wood.
A MUHAMMADAN HOUSE IN PESHAWUR.
There are no chimneys, but in the center of the roof there is an opening to emit the smoke, the fire being lighted on the ground in the center of the room. In front of the house there is an inclosure, wither of thorns or a mud wall, which secures privacy to the dwelling. A separate building, called in Asia a hujrah, or guest chamber, is provided for male visitors or guests; this chamber being common property of the section of the village, except in the case of chiefs or wealthy land-owners, who keep hurrahs of their own. In towns the houses of the inferior kind do not differ much from those in the villages, except that there is sometimes an upper storey. In some parts of Afghanistan and Persia, it becomes necessary for each house-holder to protect his dwelling, in which case a watch tower of mud, is erected close to the house.
the injunctions of Muhammad regarding the seclusion of women have very greatly influenced the plan and arrangement of Muhammadan dwelling-houses of the better class throughout the world, all respectable houses being so constructed as to seclude the female apartments from public view. In cities such as Cairo, Damascus, Delhi, Peshawur, and Cabul, the prevailing plan of dwelling-houses is an entrance through a blank wall, whose mean appearance is usually relieved by a handsome door-way and a few latticed windows. A respectable house usually consists
The harim or women's apartments in the inner court is entered by a small door. It is
INTERIOR OF A MUHAMMADAN HOUSE IN CAIRO
a quadrangle with verandahs on each of the four sides, formed by a row of pillars, the apertures of which are usually closed by sliding shutters. The back of the rooms being without windows, the only air being admitted from the front of the dwelling-place. The apartments are divided into long rooms, usually four, the extreme corners having small closets purposely built as store-rooms. On festive occasions these verandah rooms will be spread with handsome carpets, carpets and pillow being almost the only fur-
niture of an Eastern dwelling, chairs being a modern invention. The roofs of these rooms are flat, and as the top is fenced in with a barrier some four feet high, the female members of the household sleep on the top of the house in the hot weathers. [HARIM.]
In no point do Oriental habits differ more from European than in the use of the roof. Its flat surface, in fine weather the usual place of resort, is made useful for various household purposes, as drying corn, hanging up linen, and drying fruit.
In the center of the inner court or harim, there is usually a well, so that the female domestics are not obliged to leave the seclusion of the harim for water-carrying. In a large court, of a wealthy person, there is usually a raised dais of either stone or wood, on which carpets are spread, and on which the ladies sit or recline. In the better class dwellings, there are numerous courtyards, and special ones are devoted to winter and summer uses. In Peshawur, most respectable houses have an underground room, called a tah khanah, where the inmates in the hot weather sleep at mid-day. These rooms are exceedingly cool and pleasant on hot sultry days.
Over the entrance door of a Muhammadan dwelling it is usual to put an inscription, either of the Kalimah, or Creed, or of some verse of the Qur'an.
We have only attempted to describe briefly, the ordinary dwelling-houses of Muhammadans, which are common to all parts of the Eastern world; but in large wealthy cities, such as Damascus, Cairo, Delhi, and Lucknow, there are very handsome houses, which would require a longer description than our space admits of. For Mrs. Meer Ali's account of a Muhammadan harim or zananah, see HARIM.
HOUSES Permission to enter. Arabic isti'zan . To enter suddenly or abruptly into any person's house or apartments, is reckoned a great incivility in the East , and the law on this subject is very distinctly laid down in both the Qur'an and the Traditions.
Surah xxiv, 27-29:-
"O ye who believe! Enter not into other houses than your own, until ye have asked leave, and have saluted its inmates. This will be best for you; haply ye will bear this in mind.
And if ye find no one therein, then enter it not till leave be given you; and if it be said to you, 'Go back,' then go ye back. This will be more blameless in you, and God knoweth what ye do.
There shall be no harm in your entering houses in which no one dwelleth, for the supply of your needs; and God knoweth what ye do openly and what ye hide."
The traditionists record numerous injunctions of Muhammad on the subject. A man asked the Prophet, "Must I ask leave to go in to see my mothers?" He said, "Yes." Then the man said, "But I stay in the same house with her!" The Prophet said: "But you must ask permission even if you stay in the same house." Then the man said, "But I wait upon her!" The Prophet said: "What! Would you like to see her naked?" You must ask permission."
The Khalifah 'Umar said it was according to the teaching of the Prophet that if you salam three times and get no reply, you must then go away from the house.
Abu Hurairah says that the Prophet said: "When anyone sends to call you then you can return with the messenger and enter the house without permission." (Mishkat, book xxii, ch ii, pt 2.)
HU, HUWA . The personal pronoun of the third person, singular, masculine, HE, i.e. God, or He is. It occurs in the Qur'an in this sense, e.g. Surah iii, 1 Allahu la ilaha illa Huwa, "God there is no god but HE," which sentence is called the nafy wa isbat (or that which is rejected), "there is no god," and that which is affirmed, "but He." The word is often used by Sufi mystics in this form: ya hu, ya hu, ya man la ya'lamu ma hu illa hu, "O He (who is), O He (who is), O He whom no one knows what He Himself is but Himself." Some commentators have supposed the word Hu to stand for the exalted name of God, the Ismu 'l-a'zam, which Muslim doctors say is only known to God. [JEHOVAH, ISMU 'L-A'ZAM.]
HUBAL or HOBAL . The great image which stood over the well or hollow within the Ka'bah. In the early cavity beneath were preserved the offerings and other treasures of the temple. (At-Tabari, p 6, quoted by Muir.) The idol was destroyed by Muhammad at his final conquest of Makkah, A.H. 8, A.D. 630. "Mounted on (his camel) Al Caswa, he proceeded to the Kaabah, reverently saluted with his staff the sacred stone and made the seven circuits of the temple. Then pointing with the staff one by one to the numerous idols placed, around, he commanded that they should be hewn down. The great image of Hobal, reared as the tutelary deity of Mecca, in front of the Kaabah shared the common fate. 'Truth hath come,' exclaimed Mahomet, in words of the Coran, as it fell with a crash to the ground, 'and falsehood hath vanished; for falsehood is evanescent.'" (Surah xvii. 83). See Muir, Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 422. It is remarkable that there is no distinct allusion to the idol in the whole of the Qur'an.
Baizawi says he was, according to some, the son of 'Abdu 'llah, the son of Rabah, the son of Khalid, the son of 'Ad, the son of 'Aus, the son of Iram, the son of Sam, son of Noah, or, according to others, Hud was the son of Shalah, son of Arfakhshad, son of Sam, son of Noah. D'Herbelot thinks he must be the Heber of the Bible (Judges iv. 1.)
The following are accounts given of him in the Qur'an, Surah vii 63-70:-
"And to the 'Ad we sent their brother Hud. 'O my people, said he, worship God; ye have no other god than Him; will ye not then fear Him? Said the unbelieving chiefs among his people, 'We certainly perceive that thou art unsound of mind, and verily we deem thee an imposter.' He replied, 'O my people! There is no unsoundness of mind in me, but I am an apostle from the Lord of the worlds. The messages of my Lord do I announce to you, and I am your faithful counselor. Marvel ye that a warning hath come to you from your Lord through one of yourselves that He may warn you? But remember when He made you, the successors of the people of Noah, and increase you in tallness of stature. Remember then the favors of God; happily it shall be well with you.' They said, 'Art thou come to us in order that we may worship one God only, and desert what our fathers worshiped? Then bring that upon us with which thou threatenest us, if thou be a man of truth.' He replied, 'Vengeance and wrath shall suddenly light on you from your Lord. Do ye dispute with me about names that you and your fathers have given those idols, and for which God hath sent you down no warranty? Wait ye then, and I too will wait with you.' And We delivered him and those who were on his side by our mercy, and we cut off to the last man those who had treated our signs as lies and who were not believers."
Surah xi. 52-68:-
"And unto 'Ad We sent their brother Hud. He said, 'O my people, worship God. Ye have no God beside Him. Lo, ye are only devisers of a lie, O my people! I ask of you no recompense for this; verily my recompense is with Him only who hath made me. Will ye not then understand? And O my people! Ask pardon of your Lord; then turn unto Him with penitence! He will send down the heavens upon you with copious rains. And with strength in addition to your strength will He increase you; but turn not back with deeds of evil.' They replied, 'O Hud, thou hast not brought us proofs of thy mission, and we are not the persons to abandon our gods at thy word, and we believe thee not. We can only say that some of our gods have smitten thee with evil.' He said, 'Now I take God to witness, and do ye also witness, that I am innocent of that which ye associate (in worship with God) beside himself. Conspire then against me altogether and delay me not; Lo, I trust in God, my Lord and yours. No moving creature is there which He holdeth not by its forelock. Right, truly, is the way in which my Lord goeth. So if ye turn back, then I have already declared to you that wherewith I was sent to you, and my Lord will put another people in your place, nor shall ye at all injure Him; verily, my Lord keepeth watch over all things. And when our doom came to be inflicted, We rescued Hud and those who had like faith with him, by our special mercy; and We rescued them from the rigorous chastisement. And those men of 'Ad gainsaid the signs of their Lord, and rebelled against His messengers and followed the bidding of every proud contumacious person; followed therefore were they in this world by a curse; and in the day of the Resurrection it shall be said to them, 'Did not, verily, the people of 'Ad disbelieve their Lord?' Was it not said, 'Away with 'Ad, the people of Hud?'"
Surah xxci. 134-139:-
"The people of 'Ad treated the Sent Ones as liars. When their brother Hud said to them, ' Will ye not fear God? I truly am your apostle worthy of all credit; fear God then and obey me. I ask of you no reward for this, for my reward is of the Lord of the worlds alone. Build ye a landmark on every height, in pastime? And raise ye structures to be your lasting abodes? And when you put forth your power, do ye put it forth with harshness? Fear ye God, then and obey me; and fear ye Him who hath plenteously bestowed on you, ye well know what? Plenteously bestowed on you flocks and children, and gardens and fountains. Indeed, I fear for you the punishment of a great day.' They said, 'It is the same to us whether thou warn or warn us not; verily this is but a creation [tale] of the ancients, and we are not they who shall be punished.' So they charged him with imposture and We destroyed them. Verily in this was a sign: yet most of them believed it not."
AL-HUDAIBIYAH . Al-Hudaibiyah, a well on an open space on the verge of the Haram or sacred territory, which encircles Makkah. Celebrated as the scene of a truce between Muhammad and the Quraish known as the truce of al-Hudaibayih, when the Prophet agreed not to enter Makkah that year, but to defer his visit until the next, when they should not enter it with any weapons save those of the traveler, namely, to each a sheathed sword. (Muir, from Katibu 'l-Waqidi.)
The treaty is referred to in the Qur'an as "a victory," in the XLVIIth Surah, 1st verse: "We have given thee an obvious victory." A chapter which is said to have been revealed on this occasion and to have foretold the final taking of Makkah, which happened two years afterwards. (See al-Baizawi, in loco)
Surah ii. 145: "Turn your faces towards it (the Ka'bah) that men may have no argument
against you, save only those of them who are unjust."
Surah vi 84: "These are our arguments which we gave to Abraham against his people."
Surah vi. 150: "God's is the perfect argument (hujjatu 'l-balighah).
HUJJATU 'L-HAQQI 'ALA 'L-KHALQ . lit.. "The demonstration of truth upon the creature." A term used by the Sufi mystics for the Insamu 'l-kamil, or the "perfect man," as Adam was when he proceeded from the hand of his Maker, and whn he became a demonstration of God's wisdom and power before the angels of heaven. As is stated in the Qur'an, Surah ii. 29: "Thy Lord said I am about to place a viceregent (khalifah) in the earth. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dict. of Sufi Terms.)
HUJRAH . The "chamber" in which Muhammad died and was buried, which was originally the apartment allotted to 'Ayishah, the Prophet's favorite wife. It is situated behind the Masjidu 'n-Nabi, or mosque, at al-Madinah, and is an irregular square of fifty-five feet, separated from the mosque by a passage of about 26 feet. Inside the Hujrah are supposed to be the three tombs of Muhammad, Abu Bakr, and 'Umar, facing the south, surrounded by stone walls, without any aperture or, as others say, by strong planking. Whatever this material may be, it is hung outside with a curtain, somewhat like a four-post bed. The outer railing is separated by a darker passages form the inner, and is of iron filagree, painted green and gold. This fence, which connects the columns, forbids passage to all men. It has four gates, the Babu 'l-Muwajihah (the Front Gate), the Babu Fatimah (the gate of Fatimah), the Babu 'sh-Sham (the Syrian Gate), and the Babu 't-Taubah (the Gate of Repentance). The Syrian Gate is the only one which is not kept closed, and is the passage which admits officers in charge of the place. On the southern side of the fence there are three small windows about a foot square, which are said to be about three cubits from the head of the Prophet's tomb. Above the Hujrah is the green dome, surmounted by a gilt crescent, springing from a series of globes. Within the building are the tombs of Muhammad, Abu Bakr,, and 'Umar, with a space reserved for the grave of our Lord Jesus Christ, whom Muslims say will again visit the earth, and die and be buried at al-Madinah. The grave of Fatimah, the Prophet's daughter, is supposed to be in a separate part of the building, although some say she was buried in Baqi'. The Prophet's body is said to be stretched full length on the right side, with the right palm supporting the right cheek, the face fronting Makkah. Close behind him is placed Abu Bakr, whose fact fronts Muhammad's shoulder, and then 'Umar, who occupies the same position with respect to his predecessor. Amongst Christian historians, there was a popular story to the effect that Muhammadans believed the coffin of their Prophet to be suspended in the air, which has no foundation whatever in Muslim literature, and Niebuhr thinks the story must have arisen from the rude pictures sold to strangers. Captain Burton gives the annexed plan of the building:
It is related that Muhammad prayed that God would not allow his followers to make his tomb an object of idolatrous adoration, and consequently the adoration paid to the tomb at al-Madinah has been condemned by the Wahhabis and other Muslim reformers.
In A.D. 1804, when al-Madinah was taken by the Wahhabis, their chief, Sa'ud, stripped the tomb of all its valuables, and proclaimed that all prayers and exaltations addressed to it were idolatrous. (See Burton's Pilgrimage, vol. ii; Burckhardt's Arabia and Wahhabis.)
The garden annexed to the tomb is called ar-Rauzah, which is a title also given by some writers to the tomb itself.
Abu Da'ud relates that al-Qasim the grandson of Abu Bakr came to 'Ayishah and said, "O Mother, lift up the curtain of the Prophet's tomb and of his two friend, Abu Bakr and 'Umar, and she uncovered the graves, which were neither high nor low, but about one span in height, and were covered with red gravel. (Mishkat, book v, ch. vi pt. 2)
Surah iii. 73: "It beseemeth not a man, that God should give him the Scriptures and the Judgement and the Prophecy, and that
then he should say to his followers 'Be ye worshippers of me, as well as of, as well as of God'; but rather, 'Be ye perfect in things pertaining to God, since ye know the Scriptures and have studied deep.'"
(Both Sale and Rodwell translate the word al-hukn, "the wisdom", but Palmer renders it more correctly, "the judgement.")
Surah xii. 40: "To each (David and Solomon) we gave judgement and knowledge."
Al-hukmu 'sh-Shari, the injunction of the law," is a term used for a command of God, which relates to the life and conduct of an adult Muslim. (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat, in loco.)
HUMAN SACRIFICES. There is no trace in the Qur'an or Traditions of the immolation of human beings to the Deity as a religious rite. But M.C. de Percival (vol. ii, p. 101) mentions a Ghassanide prince who was sacrificed to Venus by Munzir, King of Hira. Infanticide was common in ancient Arabia, but it seems to have been done either, as amongst the Rajputs of India, from a feeling of disappointment at the birth of female children, or to avoid the expense and trouble of rearing them. The latter seems to have been the ordinary reason; for we read in the Qur'an, Surah xvii. 33: "Kill not your children for fear of poverty." [INFANTICIDE.]
AL-HUMAZAH . "The slandered." The title of the CIVth Surah of the Qur'an, so called because it commences with the words: "Woe unto every slanderer." The passage is said to have been revealed against al-Akhnas ibn Shariq, who had been guilty of slandering the Prophet.
AL-HUMAZAH . The name of a valley about three miles to the north-east of Makkah, where in the eighth year of the Hijrah a battle took place between Muhammad and the Banu Hawazin, when the latter were defeated. In the Qur'an, the victory of Hunain is ascribed to angelic assistance.
Surah ix. 25: "Verily God hath assisted you in many battle-fields and on the day of Hunain."
It is lawful to hunt with a trained dog, or a panther (Arabic fahd, Persian yuz, which is an animal of the lynx species, hooded and trained like a hawk), or a hawk, or a falcon.
The sign of a dog being trained is his catching game three times without eating it. A hawk is trained when she attends to the call of her master. If the dog or panther eat any part of the game it is unlawful, but if the dog merely eat the blood and not the flesh, it is lawful. If a hunter take game alive which his dog has wounded, he must slay it according to the law of Zabh, namely, bu cutting its throat, with the head turned Makkah-wards, and reciting, "In the name of the Great God!" The law is the same with respect to game shot by an arrow.
If a sportsman let fly an arrow (or fire a gun) at game, he must repeat the invocation, "In the name of the Great God!"
And then the flesh becomes lawful if the game is killed by the shot. But if only wounded, the animal must be slain with the invocation. Game hit by an arrow which has not a sharp point is unlawful, and so is that killed by throwing pebbles.
Game killed by a Magian, or an apostate, or a worshipper of images is not lawful because they are not allowed to perform zabh. But that slain by a Christian or a Jew is lawful.
Hunting is not allowed on the pilgrimage nor within the limits of the sacred cities of Makkah and al-Madinah.
'Adi ibn Ahtim (Mishkat, book xviii. Ch 1.) Gives the following tradition on the subject of hunting: -
"The Prophet said to me, ' When you send your dog in pursuit of game, repeat the name of god, as at slaying an animal; then if your digs holds the game for you, and you find it alive, then slay it; but if you find your dog has killed it, and not eaten any of it, then eat it; but if the dog has eaten any of it, do not you eat it, for then the dog has kept it for himself. Then if you find another dog along with yours, and the game is killed, do not eat of it; for verily you cannot know which of the dogs killed it, it might so be that when he was let loose after the game, the name of God might not have been repeated. And when you shoot an arrow at game, repeat the name of God, the same as slaying and animal; then if you lose sight of the game, and on finding it perceive nothing but the impression of your own arrow, then eat it if you wish; but if you find the game drowned, do not eat of it, although the mark of your arrow should be in it.'"
"Therein shall be the damsels with retiring glances whom hor man nor djinn hath touched before them:
And beside these shall be two other gardens:
AL-HUSAIN . The second son of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad, by her husband 'Ali, the fourth Khalifah. A brother to al-Hasan, the fifth Khalifah. According to the Shi'ahs, he was the third Khalifah. He was born A.H. 4, and died at Karbala A.H. 61, being cruelly slain in his conflict with Yazid the seventh Khalifah, according to the Sunnis.
The martyrdom of al-Husain is celebrated by the Shi'ahs every year during the first ten days of the Muharram [MUHARRAM.]; an account of his tragic death is therefore necessary for understanding the intensity of feeling with which the scences and incidents of the last days of the "Imam Husain" are enacted in the "Miracle Play", a translation of which has been given in English by Sir Lewis Pelly. The following account is taken from the Preface to this work, p. xi, seqq..
Shortly after the accession of Yezid (Yazid) Husain received at Mecca secret messages from the people of Cufa (al-Kufah), entreating him to place himself at the head of the army of the faithful in Babylonia. Yezid, hosever, had full intimation of the intended revolt, and long before Husain clould reach Cufa, the too easy governor of that city had been replace by Obaidallah (Ubai du'llah ibn Ziyad), the resolute ruler of Busorah (al-Basrah) who by his rapid measures disconcerted the plans of the conspirators and drove them to a premature outbreak, and the surrender of their leader Muslim. The latter foresaw the ruin which he had brought on Husain and shed bitter tears on the account when captured. His head was struck off and sent to Yezid. On Husain arriving at the confines of Babylonia, he was met by Harro (al-Hurr), who had been sent out by Obaidallah with a body of horsemen to intercept his approach. Husain, addressing them, asserted his title to the Califate, and invited them to submit to him. Harro replied, 'We are commanded as soon as we meet you to bring you directly to Cufa into the presence of Obaidallah the son of Zavan. Husain answered, 'I would sooner do than submit to that and gave the word to his men to ride on; but Harro wheeled about and intercepted them. At the same time, Harro said, I have no commission to fight with you but I am commanded not to part with you until I have conducted you into Cufa; but he bade Husain to choose any raod into that city that did not go directly back to Mecca,' and 'do you,' siad he, 'write to Yexid or Obaidallah, and I will write to Obaidallah, and perhaps it may please God I may meet with something that may bring me off without my being forced to an extremity on your account.' Then he retreated his force a little to allow Husain to lead the way towards Cufa, and Husain took the road that leads by Adib and Cadisia. This was on Thursday the 1st of Mohurrum (Muharram) A.H. 61 (A.D. 680). When night came on, he still continued his march all through the night. As he rode on he nodded a little, and waking again, said 'Men travel by night, and the destinies travel toward them; this I know to be a message of death.'
"In the morning, after prayers were over, he mended his pace and as he rode on there came up a horseman, who took no notice of him but saluted Harro and delivered to him a letter giving orders from Obaidallah to lead Husain and his men into a place where was neither town nor fortifications, and there leave them till the Syrain forces should surround them."
"This was on Friday the 2nd of Mohurrum. The day after, Amer ('Umar ibn Sa'id) came upon them with four thousand men, who were on the march to Dailam. They had been encamped without the walls of Cufa, and when Obaidallah heard of Husain's coming, he commanded Amer to defer his march to Dailam and go against Husain. But one and all dissuaded him. 'Beware that you go not against Husain, and rebel against your Lord, and cut off mercy from you, for you had better be deprived of the dominion of the whole world than meet your Lord with the blood of Husain upon you. Amer was fain to acquiesce, but upon Obaidallah renewing his command with threats, he marched against Husain, and came up with him, as aforesaid, on Saturday the 3rd of Mohurrum.'
"On Amer sending to inquire of Husain what brought him thither, the latter replied 'The Curfans wrote to me; but since they reject me, I am willing to return to Mecca. Amer was glad when he heard it, and said, 'I hope to God I may be excused from fighting against him.' Then he wrote to this purpose to Obaidallah; but Obaidallah sternly replied, 'Get between him and the river, and Amer did so; and the name of the place where he cut Husain off from the Euphrates was called Kerbela (Karbala); Kerb (anguish) and bela (vexation), trouble and affliction' said Husain when he heard it."
"Then Husain sought a conference with
Amer, in which he proposed either to go t Yezid, to return to Mecca, or, as some add, but others deny, to fight against the Turks. Obaidallah was at first inclined to accede ot these conditions, until Shamer stood up and swore that no terms should be made with Husain, adding significantly that he had been informed of a long conference between Husain and Amer."
"Then Obaidallah sent Shamer with orders to Amer, that if Husain would surrender unconditionally, he would be received; if not, Amer was to fall upon him and his men, and trample them under his feet. Should he refuse to do so, Shamer was to strike off Amer's head, and himself command the attack against Husain."
"Thus passed Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th of Mohurrum. On the evening of the 9th, Amer drew up his forces close to Husain's camp, and himself rode up to Husain as he was sitting in the door of his tent just after the evening prayer, and told him of the conditions offered by Obaidallah. Husian desired Amer to give him time until the next morning, when he would make his answer."
"In the night his sister came weeping to his bedside, and, awakening him, exclaimed, 'Alas for the desolation of my family! My mother Fatima is dead and my father Ali, and my brother Hasan. Alas for the destruction that is past! And alas for the destruction that is to come! 'Sister', Husain replied, 'put your trust in God, and know that man is born to die, and that the heavens shall not remain; everything shall pass away but the presence of God, who created all things by His power, and shall make them by His power pass away, and they shall return to Him alone. My father was better than me, and my mother was better than me; and my brother was better than me; and they and we and all Muslims have an example in the Apostle of God.' Then he told his men that Obaidallah wanted nobody but his, and that they should go away to their homes. But they said, 'God forbid that we should ever see the day wherein we survive you!' Then he commanded them to cord their tents close together, and make a line of them, so as to keep out the enemy's horse. And he digged a trench behind his camp, which he filled with wood to be set on fire, so that he could only be attacked in front. The rest of the night he spent in prayer and supplication, while the enemy's guard patrolled all night long round and round his camp."
"The next morning both sides prepared for the slaughter. Husain first washed and anointed himself with musk, and several of his chief men did the like; and one asking them what it meant, Husain replied pleasantly, 'Alas! There is nothing between us and the black-eyed girls of Paradise but that these troopers come down upon us and slay us!' Then he mounted his horse and set the Coran before him crying, 'O God, Thou art my confidence in every trouble and my hope in every adversity!' And submitted himself to the judgement of his companions before the opened pages of the sacred volume. At this his sisters and daughters began to weep, when he cried out in bitter anguish self-reproachfully, 'God reward the son of Abbas.' in allusion to advice which his cousin, Abdullah ibn Abbas, had given him to leave the women behind in Mecca. At this moment a party of the enemy's horse wheeled about and came up to Husain, who expected to be attacked by them. But it was Harro, who had quitted the ranks of the Syrian army, and had now come to die with Husain, and testify his repentance before men and God. As Harro rode into the doomed camp, he shouted back to Amer, 'Alas for you!' Whereupon Amer commanded his men to 'bring up the colors.' As soon as they were set in front of the troops, Shamer shot an arrow into the camp, saying, 'Bear witness that I shot the first arrow, and so the fight began on both sides.' It raged, chiefly in a series of single combats, until noon-day, when both sides retired to prayer. Husain adding to the usual office the 'Prayer of Fear,' never used but in cases of extremity. When shortly afterwards the fight was renewed, Husain was struck on the head by a sword. Faint with the loss of blood, he sat down by his tent and took upon his lap his little son Abdullah, who was at once killed by a flying arrow. He placed the little corpse on the ground, drying out 'We come from God and we return to Him. O God, give me strength to bear these misfortunes.' Growing thirsty, he ran toward the Euphrates, where, as he stooped to drink, an arrow struck him in the mouth. Raising his hands, all besmeared and dripping with blood, to heaven, he stood for awhile and prayed earnestly. His little nephew, a beautiful child, who went up to kiss him, had his hand cut off with a sword, on which Husain again wept, saying, 'Thy reward, dear child, is with thy forefathers in the realms of bliss.' Hounded on by Shamer, the Syrian troops now surrounded him; but Husain, nothing daunted, charged them right and left. In the midst of the fighting, his sister came between him and his slayers, crying out to Amer, now he could see Husain slain. Whereupon, with tears trickling down his beard, Amer turned his face away; but Shamer, with threat and curses, set on his soldiers again, and at last one wounded Husain upon the hand, and a second gashed him on the neck, and a third thrust him through the body with a spear. No sooner had he fallen to the ground than Shamer rode a troop of horsemen over his corpse, backwards and forwards, over and over again, until it was trampled into the very ground, a scarcely recognizable mass of mangled flesh and mud."
Thus, twelve years after the death of his brother Hasan, Husain, the second son of Ali, met his own death on the bloody plain of Kerbela on Saturday the 10th day of Mohurrum, A.D. 61 (A.D. 680)."
From al-Husain and his brother al-Hasan are derived the descendants of the Prophet known throughout Islam as Saiyids. [SAIYID, HASAN, MUHARRAM.]
HUSBAND Arabic zauj . A husband is not guardian over his wife any further that respects the rights of marriage, nor does the provision for her rest upon him any further than with respect to food, clothing, and lodging (Hidayah, vol. i. 63), but he may be imprisoned for the maintenance of his wife (Ibedem, vol ii p. 628). The evidence of a husband concerning his wife is not accepted by the Sunnis, but is allowed in Shi'ah law (Ib., vol ii p 685). The Muhammadan law demands that a Muslim husband shall reside equally with each of his wives, unless one wife bestow her right upon another wife. (Ib. vol i p 184.)
HUSNU 'L-KHULQ . "A good disposition." Abu Hurairah relates that one of the Companions once asked Muhammad, "What is the best thing that has been given to man? And Muhammad replied, "A good disposition." Muhammad is also related to have said that the "heaviest thing which will be put in the scales of a Muslim, in the Day of Judgement is a good disposition." (Mishkat, book xxii ch xix pt 2.)
"Woe to every backbitter.
The Imam al-Baghawi says it is the division of Hell specially reserved for the Jews.
HUWAIRIS . One of the citizens of Makkah, who was excluded from the general amnesty on the taking of Mekkah, in consequence of his having pursued Zainab, Muhammad's daughter, while endeavoring to effect her escape from Makkah. He was afterwards seized and slain by 'Ali.
HUZAIFAH . The son of al-Yaman. He was a "sworn companion" of the Prophet, one of the most eminent of the Ashab, and it is recorded by Muslim the Traditionist, that he was specifically instructed by the Prophet. His father, al-Yaman, also called Hisl or Husail, was likewise a companion, who fell at Uhud. Huzaifah died in the time of 'Ali's Khalifate, A.H. 36. (See Taqribu 't-Tahzib, p. 51.) Sir William Muir says he was the Companion who first suggested to 'Usman the necessity of the recession of the Qur'an, A.H. 33. (Life of Mahomet, new ed. p. 556.)
"Hodzeifa, who had warred both in Armenia and Adzerbaijan, and had observed the different readings of the Syrians, and of the men of Irac, was alarmed at the number and extent of the variations, and warned Othman to interpose and 'stop the people before they should differ regarding their scriptures as did the Jews and Christians.'"
HUZAIL . The ancestor of the Banu Huzail, a tribe distinguished in the annals of war and poetry, and, as we learn from Burckhardt, still occupying under the same name the environs of Makkah. (Travels in Arabi, vol. i pp. 63,66.)
HYPOCRISY. Arabic riya , nifaq , makr , mudahanat . When there is an allusion to hypocrisy in the Qur'an, it refers to the class of people known as al-Munafiqun, or the hypocrites of al-Madinah, who in the days of the Prophet professed to follow him, whilst secretly they opposed him [MUNAFIQUN.], vide Surahs ii. 7; xxxiii. 47; lvii. 13. But in the Traditions we have the following with reference to this. Mishkat, book i. ch. iii. pt. 3) : -
"The signs of hypocrisy are three: speaking falsely, promising and not performing, and being perfidious when trusted."
"There are four qualities, which being possessed by anyone, constitute a complete hypocrite; and whoever has one of the four had one hypocritical quality till he discards it: perfidy when trusted, the breaking of agreements, speaking falsely, and prosecuting hostility by treachery."
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