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693

DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.

Y.

YADU ‘LLAH. . “Hand of God.” The expression occurs in the Qur’an:-

Surah xlviii. 10: “God’s hand is above their hands.”

Surah v.69: “The Jews say, ‘God’s hand is fettered.”

The expression is a subject of controversy amongst the Muhammadans. The Wahhabis maintain that t is wrong to hold that it is merely a figurative expression, but rather that God doth possess a hand in such a manner as it exists, without attempting to explain the manner how. On the other hand, some maintain that it is merely a figurative expression for God’s power.

YAGHUS. . An idol mentioned in the Qur’an, Surah lxxi. 23. Professor Palmer says it was in the figure of a lion. Al-Baiziwi says it was the name of a hero who lived between the days of Adam and Noah, who was afterwards worshipped an idol of the name.

YA HU. . “O He!” that is “O God.” An exclamation often recited ‘y faqirs or darveshes in their religious zikrs. The third personal pronoun singular, hu


694

(huwa), "He" being a name for God, i.e. “He who exists." [ZIKR.]

YAHUD. , the plural of Yahudi. Heb. Jews. The word used in the Qur’an together with Banu Isra’il) for the Jews. [JEWS, JUDAISM.]

YAHYA. . John the Baptist. The son of Zachariah, whose birth is mentioned in the Qur’an, Surah xix. 1; iii. 34; and who is said in the latter Surah to have been sent ‘with glad tidings "to confirm the Word from God (Jesus), a chief and a chaste one and a prophet from the righteous." And in Surah vi. 85, his name occurs with that of Zachariah, Jesus, and Elias, as one of the "righteous ones." [JOHN THE BAPTIST.]

YA’JUJWA MA’JUJ. . [GOG AND MAGOG.]

YALAMLAM. . The miqat or stage where the pilgrims from al-Yaman assume the pilgrim’s garb at the pilgrimage. {HAJJ.]

YAMAMAH. . A province in the eastern portion of the Hijaz frequently mentioned in the history of Muhammad.

AL-YAMAN. . The south-western province of Arabia. It is considered the most fertile part of the country, and is called the garden of Arabia.

YAMIN. . [OATH.]

AL-YAQIN. . "The certainty." (1) A term which implies belief, sure knowledge, and which occurs in the Qur’an to express the hour of death.

Surah lxxiv. 43—48: "They shall say, ‘We were not of those who prayed, we did not feed the poor; but we did plunge into discussion with those who plunged, and we called the Judgment Day a lie until the certainly did come upon us.’’

Surah xv. 99: "Serve the Lord until the certainty come upon thee." Muslims say there are three degrees of spiritual knowledge:-

1. ‘Ilmu ‘l- Yaqin , that which a man apprehends with his intellectual faculties.

2. ‘Ainu ‘l-Yaqin that which he sees with the eye.

3. Haqqu ‘l. Yaqia , that which be fully embraces with the heart; the highest form of spiritual knowledge, especially of the Unity of God.

YAQTIN. . Heb. The gourd tree under which Jonah sheltered after he escaped from the belly of the fish.

Surah xxxvii. 145, 146: "We cast him on a barren shore: and he was sick: and we made to grow over him a gourd tree."

YA’QUB. . [JACOB.]

YA SIN. . The two Arabic letters and corresponding to the English y and s. The title of the xxxvith Surah of the Qur’an, which begins with these two letters, the mystic import of which is said to be unknown. Al-Baidawi says perhaps they mean Ya lnsan! , "O Man!" Husain suggests that they mean Ya Saiyid!, "O Saiyid!" whilst the Jalalan think the meaning is known alone to God. Muhammad said this chapter was the Qalbu-‘l-Qur’an, "the heart of the Qur’an," and it is consequently held in high estimation. It is usually read to dying persons.

Ya Sin is a title given to Muhammad with the belief that he is referred to as "O Saiyid." in the first verse of the Surah referred to.

YASRIB. . The ancient name of al-Madinah, mentioned once in the Qur’an, viz. Surah xxxiii. 13. According to the traditionist, the Prophet changed the name from Yasrib to Madinatu ‘n-Nabi, "the City of the Prophet," because Yasrib was a name of shame and reproach. (Majma’u ‘l-Bihar, vol. iii. p. 499.)

YA’SUB. . Lit. "A prince or chief." The King of the Bees. A title given to ‘Ali. (Majma’u ‘l-Bihar, vol. iii. p. 502.) A name of one of Muhammad’s horses. (Richardson’s Dictionary.)

YATHRIB. [YASRIB.]

YATIM. [ORPHAN.]

YAUM. . A day of twenty-four hours; pl. aiyam. In contradiction to lail wa nahar, "night and day."

The seven days of the week are known as:—

Yammu ‘l-ahad, first day, Sunday.

Yammu ‘l-isnain, second day, Monday.

Yammu ‘l-salasa’, third day. Tuesday.

Yammu ‘l-arba’a’, fourth day, Wednesday.

Yammu ‘l-khamis, fifth day, Thursday.

Yammu ‘l-jum’ah, day of Assembly, Friday.

Yammu ‘s-sabt, Sabbath day, Saturday.

YAUMU ‘D-DIN. . "Day of Judgment."

Surah I.: "The King of the Day of Judgment."

Surah lxxxiii. 17: "What shall make thee know what the Day of Judgment is?"

AL-YAUMU ‘L-AKHIR. . "The Last Day." A name given in the Qur’an to the Day of Judgment.

YAUMIJ ‘L ‘ASHURA’. . The tenth day of the month of Muharram. [‘ASHURA’.]


695

YAUMU ‘L-FASL. . "Day of Severing." The Day of Judgment. Surah lxxvii. 13, 14: "For the Day of Severing! and who shall teach thee what the Day of Severing is?"

YAUMU ‘L- FITR. . "The Day of breaking the fast.” [‘IDU ‘L-FITR.]

YAUMU ‘L-HARA’. . "The day of the stony country" mentioned in the Traditions. (Mishkatu ‘l-Masabah, book xxiv. ch. ix.) The day on which Yazid sent an army to al-Madinah and laid it in ruins. (See Oakley’s Saracens, p. 425.)

YAUMU ‘L-HASHR. . "Day of Assembly." The Day of Judgment.

YAUMU ‘L-HISAB. . "Day of Reckoning." The Day of Judgment. Surah xl. 28: " And Moses said. Verily, I will take refuge in my Lord and your Lord from every one who is big with pride, and believes not on the Day of Reckoning”.

YAUMU ‘L-INQITA’. . "The Day of Cessation." The day on which anything terminates. In law, the last day on which anyone who has become possessed of property illegally may restore it, or make compensation to the owner.

YAUMU L-JAM’. . "Day of Gathering." The Day of Judgment. Surah lxiv. 9: "On the day when He shall gather you to the Day of Gathering."

YAUMU ‘L.KHULUD. . "Day of Eternity." Surah l. 34: "Enter into it in peace: this is the Day of Eternity."

YAUMU ‘L-KHURUJ. . "The Day of Exodus." The Day of Judgment. Surah l. 41: "The day when they shall hear the shout in truth that is, the Day of Coming Forth."

YAUMU ‘L-KHURUJ. .

YAUMU ‘L-QARR. . "The Day of Rest." The day after the sacrifice at the Hajj, when the pilgrims rest.

YAUMU ‘L-QIYAMAH. . "Day of Standing up." The Day of Resurrection." [RESURRECTION.]

YAUMU ‘L-WA’ID. . "The Day of Threatenings." The Day of Judgment. Surah l. 19: "And the trumpet shall’ be blown! — that is the threatened day."

YAUMUN MA’LUMUN. . "A Known Day," i.e. known to God. The Day of Judgment. Surah lvi. 50: "Gathered shall they surely be for the tryst of a known day"

YAUMU ‘N-NAHR. . "Day of Sacrifice." A term used for the Feast of Sacrifice. [‘IDU ‘L-AZHA.]

YAUMU ‘S-SABU’. . The Day of Sabu’, mentioned in the following tradition (Mishkatu ‘l-Masabih book xxiv, ch. 16):-

“Abu Hurairah says. ‘Whilst a man was with his goats, behold a wolf came in amonst them, and took a goat and the man related it. And the wolf said to the man, “Who is to guard these goats on the Day of Sabu’, when there will be no shepherd but me." And the people said the wolf speaks.’ And the Prophet said, "I believe that the wolf did speak. Abu Bakr and ‘Umar also said so.’”

‘Abdu ‘l-Haqq says there is a difference of opinion as to what the Day of Sabu’ is, either it is a day of incurrection, or a festival amongst the ancient Arabs, when the flocks were left to themselves.

YAUMU ‘T-TAGHABUN. . Day of Mutual Deceit" The Day of Judgment. Surah lxiv. 9: On the day when he shall gather you to the Day of Gathering, that is the Day of Mutual Deceit.

Al-Baizawi says: “Both the righteous and the wicked will disappoint each other by reversing their positions, the wicked being punished, while the righteous are in bliss."

YAUMU ‘T-TALAQ. . Day of Meeting." The Day of Judgment. Surah xl. 15 He throws the Spirit by his bidding upon whom He will of his servants to give warning of the Day of Meeting."

YAUMU ‘T-TANAD. . "A Day of Mutual Outcry" A. name given to the Day of Judgment in the Qur’an. Surah xl. 34: "O my people I verily I fear for you the day of crying out to one another."

YA’UQ. . An idol mentioned in the Qur’an, Surah lxxi. 23. Professor Palmer says it was in the figure of a horse. Al-Baizawi says it is the name of a certain hero who lived between the days of Adam and Noah, and was afterwards worshipped in an idol of the name.

YAWNING.. Arabic tasawuh. From the Traditions it appears yawning is regarded as an evil; for Abu Hurairah relates that Muhammad said, "God loves sneezing and hates yawning. As for yawning, it is of the devil. Therefore, if any of you yawn, let him suppress it as much as possible. If he cannot stop it, let him put the back of his left hand upon his mouth; for verily, when anyone yawns and opens his mouth, the devil laughs." (Mishkat, book xxii. ch. vi.)

YAZID.. Arabic tasawuh. The son of Mu’awiyah. The second Khalifah of the honse of Uminyan (Ommiyah), who reigned from A.D. 679 to A.D. 683 (A.H. 60—64). He is celebrated in Muslim history as the opponent of al-Husain. (Sec Oakley’s Hist. Saracens, p. 393)


696

YEAR.. Arabic tasawuh. Arabic sanah, pl. sanun, sanawat; ‘am pl. ‘a’wam; haul pl. ahwal; Persian sal pl. salha.

The ancient Arabian year is supposed to have consisted of twelve lunar months, as now observed by the Muhammadans; but about the year A.D. 412, the Arabians introduced a system of intercalation, whereby one month was intercalated into every three years. (See M. de Perceval, vol. i. p. 242). This system of Intercalation existed in the time of Muhammad; but it is related that, at the farewell pilgrimage, the Prophet recited the khutbah on the Day of Sacrifice, and said :" A year is twelve months only, as at the time of the creation," and thus again in-troduced the lunar year. (See Mishkat , book xi. ch. xi.) The Muhammadan year, therefore, consists of twelve lunar months without any’intercalation to make it correspond with the course of the sun, and amounts very nearly to 354 days and 9 hours. Hence the Muhammadan New Year’s Day, Nau Roz, will happen every year about eleven days earlier than in the preceding year.

There also existed amongst the Arabians a system of commutation whereby the Muharam, the last of the three continuous sacred months [MONTHS], became secular, and Safar sacred. Some traditions say that the power else exsted of commuting the isolated sacred month Rajab, for the one succeeding it, Sha’ban. When this was done, it became lawful to war in the sacred months of Muhrram and Rajab; and Safar and Sha’ban acquired the sacredness of the months for which they hed been substituted. It is with reference to this custom that Muhammad says in the Qur’an (Surah ix. 86, 87):—

"Verily, twelve months is the number of months with God, according to God’s Book, ever since the day when He created the Heavens and the Earth; of these, four are sacred: this is the right usage. Therefore, wrong not yourselves therein, and attack those who join gods with God, one and all, as they attack you one and all; and know that God is with those who fear Him. To carry over a sacred month to another is only an increase of unbelief. They who do not believe are led in error by it. They allow it one year and forbid it another, that they may make good the number of months which God hath hallowed, and they allow that which God hath prohibited."

This system of commutation is said to have been introduced by Qusaiy, who wished, by abridging the long three months’ cessation of hostilities, to humour the warlike Arabs, as well as to obtain the power of making a sacred month secular when it might best suit his purpose; but Sir William Muir is inclined to think that this system of commutation was an ancient one, and merely restored by Qusaiy. (Muir’s Mahomet, vol. i. p. ccviii.)

Both in India and in Egypt, in the present day, the Muhamniadans use the lunar year for their religious observances and the ordinary affairs of life; hut for the purposes of agriculture and other calculations, for which tbe lunar year is inconvenient, they employ the Julian calendar.

To find the number of solar years elapsed tines any given Muhammadan date, subtract the given year of the Hijrah from the current year of the Hijrah, and front the remainder deduct three percent; the remainder will be the number of solar years which have elapsed. Thus, suppose we see a manuscript written A.H. 681, and wish to know its real age in Christian or solar years, we subtract, in the first place, the number 681 from the current year of the Hijrah, say 1256, and there remains 575; from this last we deduct three per cent, or 17, and there remains 558, which at that period is the real age of the manuscript in solar years.

If the object, however, be to find the precise Christian date corresponding to any given year of the Hijrah, apply the following rule:— From the given number of Musalman years, deduct three per cent, and to the remainder add the number 621-54; the sum is the period of the Christian era at which the given current Musalman year ends, For example: from A.H. 942, deduct three per cent., or 28-26, and the remainder is 913-74. To this last add 621-54, and the sum is 1535-28, which shows that A.H. 942 ended in the spring of A.D. 1536. This simp!e rule is founded on the fact that 100 lunar years are very nearly equal to 97 solar years, there being only eight days of excess in the former poriod: hence to the result found, as just stated, it will be requisite to add 8 days, as a correction for every ceutury.

The following is a more accurate rule. Express the Muhammadan date in years and decimals of a year; multiply by 970225; to the product add 621-54, and the sum will be the precise period of the Christian era. (Dr. Ferbes.)

If it is desired to find the year of the Hijrah which cemes in in a given year of the Christian era: it is sufficient to subtract 621 from the year given, and to multiply the remainder by 10,307. (Murray.)

YUHANNA. . The Arabic Christian name for John the Baptist, and John the Apostle, the corresponding Muslim name being Yahya. [YAHYA.]

YUNUS. . [JONAH.]

YUSHA’. . [JOSHUA.]

YUSUF. . [JOSEPH.]


Hughes' Dictionary of Islam

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