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ZABH. . Heb. zebakh. Arabic lexicographers define the sword to mean the act of cutting the throat. In time language of the law, it demotes the act of slaying an animal agreeably to the prescribed forms, without which its flesh not lawful For the food of man. See Qur'an, Surah ii. 167, 168:-

"Eat of the good things wherewith we have provided you, and give thanks unto God, if ye are His worshippers. He has only forbidden for you that which is dead, and blood, and flesh of swine, and whatsoever has been consecrated to other than God; but he who is forced, neither revolting nor transgressing, it is no sin for him for verily God a is forgiving and merciful."

The injunctions in the Traditions are more explicit (Mishkat, book xviii. cii. i.), for example: Abu Tufail relates that 'Ali was once asked, 'Has the Prophet ever told you anything with regard to religion which he bas not told others?" And 'Ali replied." Nothing. unless it be that which I have in the scabbard of my sword." Then 'Ali brought out of his scabbard a piece of paper, and thereon was written: "May God curse those who slay without repeating the name of God, in the same manner as the polytheists did in the names of their idols; may God curse those who remove their neighbours' landmarks; may God curse those who curse their fathers may God curse those who harbour innovators in matters of religion." According to Sunni law, zabb is of two kinds: 1) Ikhitiyari, of choice; and (2) Iztirari, of necessity.

The first is effected by cutting the throat above the breast and reciting the words Allahu akbar, "God is most great"; and the of second by reciting these words upon shooting an arrow or discharging a gun.

The latter act, however. is merely a substitute for the former, and accordingly is not of any account unless the former be impracticable; for the proper zabh is held to be by the shedding of blood, and the former method is most effectual for this purpose.

It is absolutely necessary that the person who slays the animal should be a Muslim or a kitabi (i.e. a Jew or a Christian), and that he should do it in the name of God alone; it signifies not whether the person be a men or a woman, or an infant, or an idiot, or an uncircumcised person.

An animal slain by a Magian is unlawful as also that slain by an idolater or an polytheist. Zabh performed by an apostate from the Muslim faith (who us worthy of death) is also unlawful; but, according to Abu Hanifah, if a Jew or a Christian become an apostate from his own creed, his zabh is lawful, for the Muslim law still regards him, with respect to zabh, in the same light as formerly.

If the slayer willfully omit the invocation, "in the name of the most great God," the flesh of the animal is unlawful; but if he omit the invocation through forgetfulness, it is lawful, although there is some difference of opinion on this subject amongst the Sunni doctors. 'Ash-Shafa'i is of opinion that the animal is lawful in either case, but the Imam MaIik maintains that it is unlawful in both.

Abu Yusuf and all the Hanafi doctors have declared, that an animal slain under a willful omission of the invocation is utterly unlawful, and that the magistrate must forbid the sale of meat so killed.

It is a condition of zabh ikhtiyari that the invocation be pronounced over the animal at the time of slaying it; but in the case of zabh iztirari (i.e. when a person slays an animal in hunting), the condition is that the invocation he pronounced at the time of letting loose the hound or hawk, or of shooting the arrow or gun, or casting the spear.

It is a condition of zabh that nothing but the invocation Bismi 'llahi Allahi akbar, "In the name of God, God the most great," should be said. That is, no prayer or other matter must be mentioned.

The place for slaying is betwixt the throat and the head of the breast-bone (Arabic labbah), and the vessels it is requisite so cut are four, al-hulqum, "the wind-pipe," al-mari', "the gullet.' and al-waridan, or al-wadajan, tithe two jugular veins."

Ash-Shafi'i holds that if a man slay an animal with a nail or horn or teeth, the flesh is unlawful, but this is not the opinion of other doctors. (See Durru 'l-Mukhtar and Hidayah, in loco.)

AZ-ZABANIYAH. . Lit. "Guards." The angels in charge of hell, of whom Malik is said to be the chief. Surah xcvi, 17, 18: "So let him call his council: we will call the guards of hell (az-Zahaniyah)."

ZABIHAH. . Lit. "Cut or divided lengthways." Heb. zebakh. An animal slaughtered according to the law: a sacrifice. [LAWFUL FOOD, SACRIFICES.]

ZABIR. . A name for Mount Sinai. Al-Baizawi says It is the mountain on which the Lord conversed with Moses. [SINAI, TUR.]

ZABT. . "Occupation, seizure." In Muhammadan law it means attachment, distraint, or sequestration; taking


lands under the management of Government officers.

ZABUR. . pl. zubur. Also zubur, pl. of zibr. From the Heb. zimrah, "a psalm or chant" (Psa. lxxxi. 2, xcviii. 5). The title given to the Psalms of David in the Qur'an, where it occurs only three times.

Suratu 'n-Nisa' (iv.) 161: "And to David we gave Psalms (zaburan)."

Suratu 'I-Mir'aj (xvii.) 67: "And Psalms (zaburan) we gave to David."

Suratu 'l-Ambiya' (xxi.) 105; "And now, since the exhortation (zikr) was given, have we written in the Psalms (fi 'z-zaburi) that my servants the righteous shall inherit the earth."

Both Sale and Rodwell take this last to be a quotation from Psa. xxxvii. 29 (it appears to be the, only direct quotation from either the Old or New Testament in the whole of the Qur'an), and they have both translated the Arabic zikr "the law," meaning, of course, the Taurat. Amongst Muslim commentators, there is considerable difference of opinion as to what is meant in this verse by zikr and zabur.

The commentator al-Baiziwi says there are three views. Said Ibn Jubair and Mujaiyid explained the word zabar to mean all inspired books, and that by zikr was meant the Preserved Tablet (al-Lauhu 'l-Mahfuz). lbn 'Abbas and az-Zahhak said by zabur was meant the Taurat, and by zikr those books which came after. And Sha'bi said the zabur was the Rook of David, and the zikr that of Moses.

Al-Baghawi and al-Jalalan decide in favour of the first interpretation, Husain decides in favour of the third, whilst al-Baiziwi leaves it an open question.

Jalilu 'd-din as-Suyuti gives the word zabur as one of the fifty-five titles of the Qur'an.

ZACHARIAS. Arabic Zakaariuya' . [ZAKARIYA'.]

ZAFIR. . Lit. "Drawing back the breath because of distress; groaning." In the Qur'an, for the groans of hell. Surah ii, 108: "In the Fire, there shall they groan."

ZA'FIRANIYAH. . A sect of Muslims, who say the Qur'an is a created thing, the orthodox school maintaining that the Word of God Is uncreated. (Kitabu l-Ta'rifat, in loco.)

ZAHF. . Lit. A swarming multitude." An army; a military force arrayed for battle.

Qur'an, Surah viii. 15: "O ye who believe I when ye meet the marshaled hosts of the unbelievers, turn not your backs to them." Hence, battle, combat.

ZARID. . Lit. "Abstinent; continent." An ascetic person. Zahid-i-khushk, Persian, "a dissembler, a hypocrite."

ZAHIR. . "Outward, exterior, manifest." A word much used in Muslim theology to express that which is manifest, as distinguished from batin, "interior" or khafi, "that which is hidden."

AZ-ZAHIR. . "The Evident." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God.

Qur'an, Surah lviii. 3: "He is the First and the Last, the Evident and the Hidden."

ZAHIRU 'L-MAZHAB. . An expression used by Hanafi Muslims for those theological questions which are decided in the four well-known Sunni books: al-Mabsut, al-Jami'u 'l-Kabir, aI-Jami'u 's-Saghir, as-Sairu 'l-Kabir.

ZAHIRU 'L-MUMKINAT. . An expression used by theologians for the proofs of God's existence, power and attributes, as exhibited in nature.

ZAID IBN AL-HARIS. . Muhammad's freedman and adopted son. Muhammad having seen and admired Zaid's wife Zainab, her husband divorced her. The relations of the ancient Arabs to their adopted children were very strict, and Muhammad's marriage with the divorced wife of his adopted son occasioned much scandal amongst his contemporaries. A revelation was consequently produced which revoked the inconvenient restrictions.

Surah xxiii. 37: "And when Zaid had settled the necessary matter of her divorce, we did wed her to thee, that it might not be a crime in the faithful to marry the wives of their adopted sons, when they have settled the necessary affair concerning them."

Zaid was slain at the battle of Mutah as he carried the standard of Islam, A.H. 8.

ZAIDIYAH. . A Shi'ah sect. Those who followed Zaid the son of 'Ali ibn al-Husain instead of the other son Ja'far as-Sidiq. [SHI'AH.]

ZAIGH. . Lit. "Turned aside" (from the Truth). It occurs in the Qur'an, Surah iii. 5. 6: "In whose hearts is perversity, . . . O Lord, pervert not our hearts."

ZAINAB. . The daughter of Khuzaimah and the widow of 'Ubaid, Muhammad's cousin, who was stain at Badr. She married Muhammad in the third year of the Hijrah. Zainab was renowned for her kindness to the poor, and was called Umnu 'I-Masakin, "the mother of the poor," from her care of destitute converts. She and Khadijah were the only wires of the Prophet who died before him.

ZAINAB. . The daughter of Jahsh and the divorced wife of Muhammad's adopted son Zaid. Being the wife of an adopted. son, she was unlawful to the Prophet, but a pretended revelation (see Quran, Surah xxxiii. 87) settled the difficulty, and Muhammad married her. [MUHAMMAD.]


ZAINAB BINT MUHAMMAD. . The Daughter of Muhammad by Khadijah. She married Abu 'l-As. The story of the conversion of Abu 'l-As, through the devotion of his wife, is told by Muir (vol. iv p 7). She died A.H. 61.

ZA'IR. . A pilgrim to Muhammad's grave at al-Madinah, as distinguished from a haji, or pilgrim to Makkah. According to Burton. Za'irs are ordered to visit the tomb perfumed and in their best clothes. The person who conducts the za'ir to the sacred spot is called a muzawwir, who on the occasion of Captain Burton's visit recited the following prayer:-

"In the name of Allah and in the Faith of Allah's Prophet! O Lord, cause me to enter the entering of truth, and cause me to issue forth the issuing of Truth, and permit me to draw near to Thee and make me a King victorious!" (i.e. over the world, the flesh and the devil). Then follow blessings on the Prophet, and afterwards: "O Allah! open to me the doors of Thy mercy, and grant me entrance into it, and protect me from the stoned devil!" (Burton's El-Medinah and Meccah, vol. ii. p. 296.)

ZAKARIYA'. . Zacharias. The father of John Baptist; the husband of Hannah's sister, and the uncle of the Virgin Nary. Mentioned four times in the Qur'an Surah' iii. 32: "So with goodly acceptance did her Lord accept her, with goodly growth did He make her grow, and Zakariya' reared her. So oft as Zakaniya' went in to Mary at the sanctuary, he found her supplied with food. 'Oh Mary:' said he, whence hast thou this?' She said, 'It is from God verily God supplieth whom He will without reckoning! There did Zakarayi' call upon his Lord; 'O my Lord!' said he, 'vouchsafe me from Thyself good descendants; Thou verily art the hearer of prayer.' Then did the angels call to him, as he stood praying in the sanctuary: 'God announced John (Yahya) to thee, who shall be a verifier of the Word from God, and a great one, chaste, and a prophet of the number of the just.' He said, 'O my Lord! how shall I have a son now that old age has come upon me and my wife is barren? He said: 'Thus will God do his pleasure.' He said, 'Lord! give me a token.' He said, 'Thy token is, that not for three days shalt thou speak to man but by signs. But remember thy Lord often, and praise Him at even and at morn.'"

Surah vi. 85:" And Zakariya', John, Jesus, end Elias: all were just persons." Surah xix. 1—12: "A recital of thy Lord's mercy to His servant Zakariya', when he called upon his Lord with secret calling. He said: 'O Lord, verily my bones are weak and the hoar hairs glisten on my head, nod never, Lord, have I prayed to Thee with ill success. But now I have fear for my kindred after me; and my wife is barren: Give me, then, a successor as Thy special gift and As heir of the family of Jacob and make him Lord, well pleasing to Thee. 'O Zakariya', verily We summoned to thee a son, his name Yahya (John), that name We have given to none before him.' He said, 'O my Lord! How when my wife is barren shall I have a son and when I have now reached old age failing in my powers? He said 'So shall it be. Thy Lord hath said, Easy is this to Me, for I created thee aforetime when thou wast nothing.' He said: 'Vouch-safe me, O my Lord! a sign.. He said: 'Thy sign shall be that for three nights, though sound in health, thou speakast not to man.' And he came forth from the sanctuary to his people, and made signs to them as though he would say. 'Praise God at morn and even.'"

Surah xxi. 89, "And Zakariya', when he called upon his Lord saying, "O my Lord leave me not childless: but there is no better heir than Thyself.' So We heard him and gave him Yahya (John), and We made his wile fit for child-bearing.

ZAKAT. . In its primitive sense the word zakat means purification. Whence it is also used to express a portion of property bestowed in alms, as a sanctification of the remainder to the proprietor. Lt is an institution of Islam and founded upon an express command in the Qur'an (vide Surah ii. 77), being one of the five foundations of practical religion.

It is a religious duty incumbent upon any person who is free, sane, adult, and a Muslim, provided he be possessed in full property of such estate or effects as are termed in the language of the law nisab, and that he has been in possession of the same for the space of one complete year. The nisab, or fixed amount of property upon which zakat is due, varies with reference to the different kinds of property in possession, as will be seen in the present article.

The one complete year in which the property is held in possession is termed hamu 'l-haul. Zakat is not incumbent upon a man against whom there are debts equal to or exceeding the amount of his whole property, nor is it due upon the necessaries of life, such as dwelling-houses, or articles of clothing, or household furniture, or cattle kept for immediate use, or slaves employed an actual servants, or armour and weapons designed for present use, or upon books of science and theology used by scholars, or upon tools used by craftsmen.

(1) The zakat of camels. Zakat is not due upon less than five camels, and upon five camels it is one goat or sheep, provided they subsist upon pasture throughout the year, because zakat is only due upon such camels am live on pasture, and not upon those which are fed in the home with forage. One goat is due upon any number of camels from five to nine; two goats for any number of camels from ten to fourteen; three goats for any number from twenty to twenty-four. Upon any number of camels from twenty-five to thirty-five the


Zakat is a bint mikhaz, or a yearling female camel from thirty-six to forty-five, a bint laban, or a two-year-old female camel: from forty six to sixty, a hiqqah, or a three-year old female camel; from sixty-one to seventy-five, a juz'ah, or four-year-old female camel; from seventy-five to ninety, two camel's female two-year-old colts: and from ninety-one to one hundred and twenty, two camels' female three-year-old colts. When the number of camels exceeds one hundred and twenty, the zakat is calculated by the aforesaid rule.

(2) The zakat of bulls, cows, and buffaloes. No zakat is due upon fewer than thirty cattle, and upon thirty cattle which feed on pasture for the greater part of the year, there is due at the anti of the year a tabi'ah, or a one-year-old calf; and upon forty is due a musim, or a calf of two years old; and where the number exceeds forty, the zakat is to he calculated according to this rule. For example, upon sixty the zakat is two yearling calves; upon seventy, one tabi'ah and one musim; upon eighty, two musims; upon ninety, three upon one hundred, two tabi'ahs and one musim; and thus upon every ten, head of cattle a musim and a tabi'ah alternately. Thus upon one hundred and ten kine, the zakat is two musims and one tabi'ah; and upon one hundred and twenty, four tabi'ahs. The usual method, however, of calculating the zakat upon large herds of cattle is by dividing them into thirties and forties, imposing upon every thirty one tabi'ah, or upon every forty one musim.

(3) Zakat upon sheep and goats. No zakat is due upon less than forty, which have fed the greater part of the year upon pasture, upon which is due one goat, until the number reaches one hundred and twenty for one hundred and twenty-one to two hundred, it is two goats or sheep; and above this, one for every hundred. The same rules apply to both sheep and goats, because in the Traditions the original word ghanam applies to both species.

(4) Zukat upon horses. When horses and mares are kept indiscriminately together, feeding for the greater part of the year on pasture, it Is the option of the proprietor to give a zakat of one dinar per head for the whole, or to appreciate the whole, and give five per cent, upon the total value. No zakat what-ever is due upon droves of horses consisting entirely of males or entirely of mares. There is no zakat due upon horses or mules, unless they are articles of merchandise, nor is it due upon war horses, or upon beasts of burden or upon cattle kept for drawing ploughs and so forth.

(u) Zakat upon silver. It is not due upon silver of less value than two hundred dirhams, but if one be possessed of this sum for a whole year, the zakat due upon it is five dirhams. No zakat is due upon an excess above the two hundred dirhams till such excess amount to forty, upon which the zakat is one dirham, and for every succeeding forty, one dirham. These dirhams in which silver predominates are to be accounted silver, and the laws respecting silver apply to them, although they should contain some alloy; and the same rule holds with regard to all articles falling under the denomination of plate, such as cups and goblets.

(6) Zakat upon gold. No zakat is due upon gold under the value of twenty misqals, and the zakat due upon twenty misqals is half a misqal, When the quantity of gold exceed twenty misqals, on every four misqals above,: twenty are due two qirats, and so on in proportion.

Zakat is due upon gold and silver bullion, and upon all gold and silver ornaments utensils.

(7) Zakat upon articles of merchandise. Articles of merchandise should be appraised, and a zakat of 24 per cent paid upon the value, if it exceed two hundred dirhams in value.

(8) Zakat. upon mines, or buried treasures. Mines of gold, silver, iron, lead, or copper, are subject to a zakat of one-fifth (khums) out if the mine is discovered within the precincts of a person's own home, nothing is due. And if a person find a deposit of buried treasure, a fifth is due upon it. No zakat is clue upon precious stones.

(9) Zakat upon the fruits of the earth. Upon everything produced from the ground there is a tenth ('ashir or 'ushr), whether the soil be watered by the overflow of rivers or by periodical rains, excepting the articles of wood, bamboo, and grass, which are not subject to the tithe. Land watered by means of buckets, or machinery, or watering camels, is subject to a twentieth. Honey and fruits collected in the wilderness are subject to tithe.

The zakat is received by a collector duly appointed for the purpose, although it is lawful for the possessor to distribute his alms himself. If a person come to the collector, and make a declaration on oath as to the amount of his property upon which zakat is due, his statement is to he credited.

There are seven descriptions of persons upon whom zakat may be bestowed.

(1) Faqirs, or persons possessed of property, the whole of which, however, does not amount to nisab.

(2) Miskins, or persons who have no property whatever.

(3) The collector of zakat.

(4) Slaves.

(5) Debtors.

(6) Fj sabili 'llah, i.e. in the service of God, or religious warfare.

(7) Travelers.

The above laws with reference so zakat are those according to the Hanafiyah sect, but the differences amongst the Imams of the Sunnis on this subject are but small. They may be seen upon reference to Hamilton's translation of the Hidayah, vol. i. p. 1.

ZAKHA'IRU 'LLAH. . Lit. "Repositories of God" A Sufi term for


a class of believers who, on account of their spiritual attainments, are the means of preventing troubles in a nation, in the same manner as store (zakha'ir) of gram keep away famines.

ZAKIR. . One who remembers God by reciting His names and praises. The reciter of a zikr [ZIKR.]

ZALALAH. . "Error." The word frequently occurs in the Qur'an, e.g. Surah ii. 15 "These are they who have purchased error, at the price of the guidance."

ZAMB. . pl. zunub. "A sin; a crime." A charge of such. The word occurs frequently in the Qur'an, e.g. :-

Surah xxvi. 13 "They have a charge against me (i.e. Aaron), and I fear lest they put me to death."

Surah xl. 2 [Frorn God] "the forgiver of sin."

Surah lxxxi. 9. "For what crime she was put to death." [SIN.]

ZAMZAM. .The sacred well within the precincts of the mosque at Makkah. It is supposed to be the identical spring from which Hagar and Ishmael drank in the wilderness (Genesis xvi. .4), but which is stated in the Scriptures to have been between Kadesh and Bared.

The origin of the word zamzam is uncertain. According to Johnson's Arabic Dictionary, it means the low: buzzing sound, made by the ancient fire-worshippers, and may therefore allude to the murmuring of the water of the well. Some Muslim commentators derive it from zamm! zamm! - evict -, i.e. "fill! fill!" Hager's words to Ishmael when she saw the water. Sale translates it "Stay! Stay!" and adds that Hagar called out in the Egyptian language to prevent Ishmael wandering.

The building which encloses the well Zam-zam stands close by the Maqam Hanbali, and was erected in A.H. 1072 (A.D. 1661). According to Burckhardt, it is of a square shape, and of massive construction, with an entrance to the north, opening into the room which contains the well. This room is beautifully ornamented with marbles of various colours; and adjoining to it, but having a separate door, is a small room with a stone reservoir, which is always full of Zamzam water. This the pilgrims get to drink by passing their hand, with a cup, through an iron grated opening which serves as a window, into the reservoir, without entering the room. The mouth of the well is surrounded by a wall five feet in height, and about ten feet in diameter. Upon this the people stand who draw up the up the water in learthern buckets, an iron railing being so placed as to prevent their falling in. The water is then poured into earthen jars, called dauraq, which Captain Burton describes as little amphora, each marked with the name of the donor and a peculiar cypher. These jars are placed in long rows on the ground, along the paved Ways which lead up to the Kabbah, and between which grass appears growing in several places produced by the Zamzam water oozing out of the jars.

The Zamzam water is held in great esteem throughout the East. It is used for drinking and ablutions, but for no baser purposes; and the Makkans advise pilgrims to always break their fast with it. Captain Burton says: "It Is apt to cause diarrhea and boils, and I never saw a stranger drink it without a wry face. Sale is decidedly correct in his assertion the flavour is salt-bitter, much resembling an infusion of a teaspoonful of Epsom salts in a large tumbler of tepid water, More over, it is exceedingly 'heavy' to the taste - for this reason, Turks and other strangers prefer rain water collected in cisterns, and sold for live farthings a guglet. The water is transmitted to distant regions in glazed earthen jars covered with basketwork, and sealed by the Zem Zemis (Zamzamis, or dispensers of the holy water). Religious men break their lenten fast with it, apply it to their eyes to brighten vision, and imbibe a few drops at the hour of death, when Satan stands by holding a bowl of purest water, the price of the departing soul. The copious supply of the well is considered at Meccah miraculous in distant countries it facilitates the pronunciation of Arabic to the student; and everywhere the nauseous draught is highly meritorious in a religious point of view."

According to the same author, the name has become generic for a well situated within the walls of a mosque, and amongst these, naturally, the Zamzam of al-Madinah stands nearest in dignity to the Makkah well, with which it is said to be connected by a subterranean passage. Others believe that it is filled by a vein of water springing directly under the Prophet's grave, whence it is generally called Bi'ru 'n-Nabi, or the Prophets well. It stands at the south-east anglo of an enclosure within the court of the mosque of al-Madinah, called the garden of Fayimah, under a wooden roof supported by pillars of the same material.

ZANANAH. . A Persian adjective derived from the word zan, "a woman." That which belongs to women. It denotes the household of a Muhammadan, his wives and children, and the apartments in which they reside. For a full account of an Indian zananah by Mrs. Meer Ali, see HARIM.

"A zananah mission" is a Christian mission established for the benefit of the wives and daughters of Muhammadans.

ZANJABILA. . "Ginger." An aromatic with which the cups of Paradise are flavored. See Qur'an. Surah lxxvi. 17: And they shall drink therein a cup tempered with zanjabil."

ZANN. . pl. zunun. "Opinion; suspicion." In Muhammadan law, a presumption that a charge is well-founded,


although the evidence is inconclusive. Za-Zannu 'l-Ghalib, expresses a strong presumption of truth in a charge, although the evidence does not amount to conviction. The "Not proven" of Scotch law. The word man, in the sense of "suspicion," occurs in the Our'an, Surah xlix. 12: "O Believers! avoid frequent, for some suspicious are a crime."

ZAQQOM. . An infernal tree described in the Qur'an Surah xxxvii. 60—64: "Is this the letter repast or the tree az-Zaqqum? Verily We have made it for a subject of discord to the wicked: Lo, It is a tree which cometh up from the bottom of hell its fruit is as it were the heads of Satans: and, lo! the damned shall surely eat of it and fill their bellies with it."

Surah xliv. 43, 44: "Verily the tree of az Zaqqum shall be the sinner's food."

Surah lvi. 51—53: "Then verily ye, O ye the erring, the imputers of falsehood, shall surely eat of the tree of Zaqqum, and fill your bellies with it."

It is a name now given to a thorny tree, whose fruit is sweet and styptic, and from the stone of which oil is extracted. (Richardson's Dictionary.)

ZARAMIYAH. . A sect of Shiah Muhammadans. who say that the next lmams after 'Ali were Muhammad ibn Hanfiyah, 'Abdullah, 'Ali ibn 'Abdillah ibn Abbas, and afterwards his progeny, as far as Mansur, until at last the Divine power entered into Abu Muslim, who, they assert, was not really slain. (Kasifu 'l-Istilahat, in loco.)

ZARARIYAH. . A sect of Muslims founded by one of the Companions, named Zarurah, who say the attributes of God are not eternal. (Kitabu 't-Ta'rifat, in loco.)

ZARB. . Lit. "Striking." In arithmetic, "Multiplication." The concluding foot of a line in poetry. A term used by Sufi mystics for the ceremony of zikr.

AZ-ZARIYAT. ."The Scatterers." The title of the LIst Surah of the Qur'an which begins with the words "By the Scatterers who scatter," By which is understood the winds of heaven

AZ-ZARR. . "The Distresser." One of the ninety-nine attributes of God. In the Qur'an the word is applied to Satan.

Surah lviii. 11: "Only of Satan is this clandestine talk, that he may bring the faithful to grief; but, unless by God's permission, not aught shall he harm them (laisa bi-zarrihim)! in God, then, let the faithful trust."

God, therefore, is called the "Distresser," in so far as evil befalls man only by His permission.

ZARRAH. . "An atom."

The word occurs in the Qur'an in the following verse.—

Surah xcix. 6: "On that day shall men come up in separate bands to behold their works ; and whosover shall have wrought an atom's weight of good shall behold it, and whosoever shall have wrought an atom's weight of evil shall behold it."

ZAT. . pl. zawat. From za, "a possessor," of which zat, is the feminine. In the Dictionary al-Mughrab it is defined as the essence of a thing, meaning that by being which a thing is what it is, or that in being which a thing consists; or the ultimate and radical constituent of a thing. It is used for the nature or essence of God, Allah being called the Isma 'z-Zat, or "Essential name of God." zatu 'llah the "Essence of God", is a scholastic theological expression. In Muslim law zat signifies the body connected with the soul, in opposition to badn, which means the "material body."


ZAWU 'L-FURUZ. . The Sharers of inheritance whose shares are specified in the Qur'an itself. [INHERITANCE.]


ZIHAR. . Lit. "Likening to the back." A form of imprecation which involves the separation of husband and wife until expiation is made. According to the Hidayah, zihar signifies the likening of a woman to a kinswoman within the prohibited degrees, which interpretation is found in the comparison being applied to any of the parts or members of the body improper to be seen. The usual formula is: Anti 'alaiya ka-zahri ummi, "Thou art unto me as my mother's back."

Before the establishment of Muhammadanism, zihar stood as a divorce, but Muhammad changed it to a temporary prohibition, for which expiation must be performed, viz. either freeing a slave, or two mouths fast, or feeding sixty persons. Qur'an, Surat-u'l-Mujadilah (lviii), I—5:-

" God hath heard the words of her who pleaded with thee against her husband, and made her plaint to God; and God hath heard your mutual intercourse; for God Heareth! Beholdeth.

"As to those of you who put away their wives by saying,"Be thou to me as my mother's back, "—their mothers they are not; they only are their mothers who gave them birth! they certainly say a blameworthy thing and an untruth.

"But truly. God is Forgiving, Indulgent.

"And those who thus put away their wires, and afterwards would recall their words, must free a captive before they can come together again. To this are ye warned to conform: and God is aware of what ye do.


"And he who findeth not a captive to set free, shall fast two months in succession before they two come together. And he who Shall not be able to do so, shall feed sixty poor men. This, that he may believe in God and His Apostle. These are the statutes of God; and for the unbelievers is art a afflictive chastisement!"

The above injunction was occasioned by Khaulah, the daughter of Sa'labah, having pleaded her ease with the Prophet because she had been divorced by her husband Aus Ibn as-Samit, by the formula above mentioned, and which was understood by the Arabs to imply perpetual separation. Muhammad had, in the first instance, decreed the divorce in accordance with ancient Arabic law, but relaxed his order in consequence of the woman's earnest pleadings.

ZIKR. . Lit. "Remembering." Heb. zakhar. The religious ceremony, or act of devotion, which is practised by the various religious orders of Faqirs, or Darweshes. Almost every religious Muhammadan is a member of some order of Faqirs and, consequently, the performance of zikr is very common in all Muhammadan countries: but it does not appear that any one methods of performing the religious service of zikr is peculiar to any order.

Zikrs, are of two kinds: zikr jail, that which is recited aloud, and zikr khafi, that which is performed either with a low voice or mentally.

The Naqshbandiyah order of Faqirs usually perform the latter, whilst the Chishtiyah and Qadiriyah orders celebrate the former. There are various ways of going through the exercise, but the maim features of each are similar in character. The following is a zikr ,jail, as given in the book (Qauli, 'l-Jarnil, by Maulawi Shah Waliyu 'llah, of Delhi:-

The worshipper sits in the usual sitting posture and shouts the word Allah (God), drawing his voice from his left aide and then from his throat.

Sitting as at prayers he repeats the word Allah still louder than before, first from his right knee, and then from his left side.

Folding his legs under him he repeats the word Allah first from his right knee and then from his left side, still louder!

Still remaining in the same position, he shouts the word Allahi, first from the left knee, then from the right knee, then from the left side, and lastly in front, still louder!

Sitting as at prayer, with his face towards Makkah, he closes his eyes, says "La". — drawing the sound as from his navel up to his left shoulder; then he says ilaha, drawing out the sound as from his brain; and lastly "'illa 'llahu," repeated from his left side with great energy.

Each of these stages is called a zarb. They are, of course, recited many hundreds of times over, and the changes we have described account for the variations of sound and motion of the body described by Eastern travellers who have witnessed the performance of a zikr.

The following is a zikr khaf'i, or that which is performed in either a low voice or mentally.

Closing his eyes and lips, he says, with the tongue of the heart."

Allahu Sami'un, "God the Hearer."
Allahu Basirun, "God the Seer."
Allahu 'Alimun, "God the Knower."

The first being drawn, as it were, from the navel to the breast; the second, from the breast to the brain; the third, from the brain up the heavens; and then again repeated stage by stage backwards and forwards.

He says in a low voice, "Allah," from the right knee, and then from the left side.

With each exhalation of his breath, he says, "la ilaha," and with each inhalation "illa 'llahu".

This third zarb is a most exhausting act of devotion, performed, as it is, hundreds or even thousands of times, and is therefore considered the most meritorious.

It is related that Maulawi Habibu llah, living in the village of Gabasauri, in the Gadun country, on the Pashawur frontier, became such an adept in the performance of this zarb, that he recited the first part of the zikr Ia ilaha, with the exhalation of his breath alter the mid-day prayer: and the second part, illa 'llahu, with the inhalation of his breath before the next time of prayer, thus sustaining his breath for the period of about three hours!

Another act of devotion, witch usually ac companies the zikr, is that of -Muraqabah, or meditation.

The worshipper first performs sikr of the following:-

Allaho haziri "God who as present with me."

Allaho naziri, "God who sees me."

Allaho shahidi, "God who witnesses me."

Allaho ma'i, "God who is with me."

Having recited this zikr, either aloud or mentally, the worshipper proceeds to meditate upon some verse or verses of the Qur'an. Those recommended for the Qadiriyah Faqirs by Maulavi Shah Waliyu 'llah are the blowing, which we give as indicating the line of thought which is considered most devotion and spiritual by Muslim mystics:-

Suratu 'l-Hadid (lvii.), 3:-

"He (God) is first. He is Last, The Manifest, and the Hidden, and who knoweth all things."

2. Suratu 'l-Hadid (lvii.), 4:-

"He (God) is with you wheresoever ye be."

3. Suratu Qaf (l.), 16 :—

"We (God) are closet to him (man) than his neck-vein."

Suratu 'l-Baqarah (ii.) 109:—

"Whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God." Suratu 'n-Nisa (iv.), 125:-

"God encompasseth all things."


6. Suratu 'r-Rahman (lv.), 26, 27:-

"All on earth shall pass away, but the face of thy God shall abide resplendent with majesty and glory."

Some teachers tell their disciples that the heart has two doors, that which is fleshly, and that which is spiritual; and that the zikr jali has been established for the opening of the former, and zikr khaf'i for the latter, in order that they may both be enlightened.

To the uninitiated such a ceremony appears but a meaningless rite, but to the Sufi, it is one calculated to convey great benefit to his inner man, as will appear from the following instructions which are given by a member of the Order respecting the zikr, which he says is the union of the heart and the tongue in calling upon God's name. "In the first place, the Shaik, or teacher must with his heart recite, 'There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah.' whilst the Murid keeps his attention fixed by placing his heart opposite that of the Shaikh: he must close his eyes, keep his mouth firmly shut, and his tongue pressed against the roof of his mouth his teeth tight against each other, and hold his breath; then with great force, accompany the Shaikh in the zikr, which he must recite with his heart, and not with his tongue. He must retain his breath patiently, so that within one respiration be shall say the zikr three times, and by this means allow his heart to be impressed with the meditative zikr." "The heart," the same writer continues, "in this manner is kept constantly occupied with the idea of the Most High God; it will be filled with awe, love, and respect for Him; and, if the practiser arrives at the power of continuing to effect this when in the company of a crowd, the zikr is perfect. If he cannot do this, it is clear that he must continue his efforts. The heart is a subtle part of the human frame, and is apt to wander away after worldly concerns, so that the easier mode of arriving at the proceeding is to compress the breath, and keep the month tightly closed with the tongue forced against the lips. The heart is shaped like a fir-tree; your meditations should be forced upon it whilst you mentally recite the zikr. 'Let the "La" be upward, the "llaha" to the right, and the whole phrase "La lluha illa 'llahu " (There is no God but Allah) he formed upon the fir-cone, and through it pass to all the members of the whole frame, and they feel its warmth. By this means the world and all its attractions disappear from your vision, and you are enabled to behold the excellence of the Most High. Nothing must be allowed to distract your attention from the zikr, and ultimately you retain, by its medium, a proper conception of the Tauhid, or Unity of God.

"The cone-shaped heart rests in the left breast and contains the whole truth of man. Indeed, it signifies the whole truth; it comprises the whole of man's existence within itself, and is a compendium of man; mankind great and small, are but an extension of it and it is to humanity what the seed is to the whole tree which it contains within itself: in fine, the essence of the whole of God's book, and of all His secrets is the heart of man, Whoever finds a way to the heart obtains his desire; to find away to the heart is needed by a heartful service, and the heart accepts of the services of the heart. It is only through the fatigues of water and ashes that the Murid reaches the conversation of the heart and the soul ; he will be then so drawn towards God that afterwards, without any difficulty, he may without trouble, in case of need turn his face from all others towards Him. He will then know the real meaning of the Tark (the abandonment of the world), the Haqiqut (the truth), the Hurriya (the freedom), and the Zikr (the recital of God's names and praises)."

As a curious instance of the superstitious character of this devotional exercise, the Chishtiyah order believe that if a man sits cross-legged and seizes the vein called kuimas, which is under the leg, with his toes, that it will give peace to his heart, when accompanied by a zikr of the "nafi wa isbat," which is a term used for the Kalimah, namely:-

La ilaha illa 'llahu, "There is no deity but God."

The most common form of zikr is a recital of the ninety-nine names of God [NAMES OF GOD], for Muhammad promised those of his followers who recited them a sure entrance to Paradise (Mishkat, book cxi.); and to facilitate the recital of tiniest names, the zakir (or reciter) uses a tasbih (or rosary). [TASBIH.]

In addition to the forms of zikr already mentioned there are three others, which are oven of more common use, and are known as Tasbih, Tahmid, and Takbir. They are used as exclamations of joy and surprise, as well as for the devotional exercise of zikr.

Tasbih is the expression Subhana 'llah, "Holiness be to God!"

Tahmid, Alhamdu li-'llah! "Praise he to God!"

Takbir, Allahu akbar! "God is great!"

When the Tasbih and Tahmid are recited together it is said thus, Subhana 'llahi bi-hamdi-hi, i.e. "Holiness be to God with His praise." It is related in the Hadis that Muhammad said," Whoever recites this sentence a hundred times, morning and evening, will have all his sins forgiven."

Muhammad said, "Repeat the Tasbih a hundred times, and a thousand virtues shall be recorded by God for you, ten virtuous deeds for each repetition."

In forming our estimation of Muhammad and Muhammadanism, we must take into consideration the important place the devotional exercise of zikr occupies in the system not forgetting that it has had the authoritative sanction of 'the Prophet" himself.

The following is a graphic description of one of these devotional performances, by Dr. Eugene Schuyler, in his work on Turkistan:-

At about ten o'clock one Thursday evening, in company with several friends, we went


to the mosque, and were at once admitted. Some thirty men, young and old, were on their knees in front of the qiblah, reciting prayers with loud cries and violent movements of the body, and around them was a circle, two or three deep, of men standing, who were going through the same motions. We took up a position in one corner and watched the proceedings. For the most part the performers or worshippers had taken off their outside gowns and their turbans, for the night was warm and the exercise was violent. They were reciting the words 'My defense is in God! May Allah be magnified! My light, Muhammad--God bless him There is no God but God" These words were chanted to various semi-musical notes in a low voice, and were accompanied by a violent movement of the head over the left shoulder towards the heart, then back, then to the right shoulder, and then down. as if directing all the movements towards the heart. These texts were rejected for hundreds and hundreds of times, and this zikr usually lasted for an hour or two. At first the movements were slow, but continually increased in rapidity, until the performers were unable to endure it any longer. If anyone failed in his duty, or was slower, or made less movements than was required, the persons who regulated the enthusiasm went up to him and struck him over the head, or pushed him back out of the circle and called another into it. Occasions by persons got so worn out with their cries and so wet with perspiration, that it became necessary for them to retire for a few minutes rest, and their places were immediately taken by others. When their voices became entirely hoarse with one cry another was begun, and finally the cry was struck up,' He lives! He lives! God lives! ' at first slowly, with an inclination of the body to the ground: then the rhythm grew faster and in cadence, the body became more vertical, until at last the, all stood up the measure still increased in rapidity, and, each one placing his hand on the shoulder of his neighbour, and then forming several concentric rings, they moved in a mass from side to side of the mosque, leaping about and always crying: 'He lives! God lives'' Hitherto, there had been something wild and unearthly in it, but now to persons of weak nerves it became positively painful, and two of my friends were so much impressed as to he obliged to leave the mosque. Although I was sufficiently cold-blooded to see the ridiculous rather than horrible aide of this, I could not help receiving an impression that the devotees were a pack of madmen, whose motions wore utterly independent of any volition of their own … The intonations of the voice were very remarkable, and were often accompanied by most singular gestures, the hands or a book being often held to the aide of the mouth in order to throw the voice as far as possible. Often those recitations are merely collections of meaningless words, which always seem to produce the same effect on the bearers, and are constantly interrupted by cries of Hi, ho, och, och, ba, ba, and groans and sobs, and the hearers weep. beat their breast with their lists, or fall upon the ground."

The dancing and howling darweshes at Constantinople and Cairo have become public sights and are familiar to those Europeans who have visited those cities.

We are indebted to Mr. Brown's account of The Dervishes (Trubner and Co., Ludgate Hill) for the following graphic description of one of these public recitals of zikr. [FAQIR.]

The ceremony commences by the recital by the Shaikh of the seven first attributes of the Divinity, called by them the seven mysterious words. "He next chants various passages of the Koran, and at each pause the Dervishes, placed in a circle round the hall, respond in chorus by the word 'Allah!' (God) or 'Hoo!'(Huwa or Hu, He). In some of the societies they sit on their heels, the elbows close to those of each other, and all making simultaneously light movements of the head and body. In others, the movement consists in balancing themselves slowly, from the right to the left, and from the left to the right, or inclining the body methodically forward and aft. There are other societies in which these motions commence seated, in measured cadences, with a staid countenance, the eyes closed or fixed upon the ground, and are continued on foot. These singular exercises are consecrated under the name of Murskebeh (exaltation of the Divine glory) [muraqabah, 'meditation' and also under that of the Tevheed (celebration of the Divine unity) [Tauhid], from which comes the name Tevheed khaneh given to the whole of the halls devoted to these religious exercises.

"In some of those insitutions, such as the Kadirees the Rufa'ees, the Khalwettees, the Bairamess, the Ushakees, and the 'Ushakees, the exercises are made, each holding the other by the hand, putting forward always the right foot, and increasing at every step the strength of the movement of the body. This is called the Devr (Daur), which may be translated the 'dance or 'rotation.' The duration of these stances is arbitrary,—each one is free to leave when he pleases. Every one, however, makes it a point to remain as long as possible. The strongest and most robust of the number, and the most enthusiastic, strive to persevere longer than the others; they uncover their heads, take off their turbans, form a second circle within the other, entwine their arms within those of their brethren, lock their shoulders against each other, gradually raise the voice, and without ceasing repeat 'Ya Allah!' (O God), or 'Ya Hoo!' (O Ie), increasing each time the movement of the body, and not stopping until their entire strength is exhausted.

"Those of the other of the Rufa'ees excel in these exercises. They are, moreover, the only ones who use fire in their devotions. Their practices embrace nearly all those of the other orders; they are ordinarily divided into fire different scenes, which last more than three hours, and which are preceded,


accompanied, and followed by certain ceremonies peculiar to this order. The first commences with praises which all the Dervishes offer to their sheikhs, seated before the altar. Four of the more ancient come forward the first, and approach their superior, embrace each other as if to give the kiss of peace and next place themselves two to his right and two to his left. The remainder of the Dervishes, in a body, press forward in a procession, all having their arms crossed, and their heads inclined. Each one, at first, salutes by a profound bow the tablet on which the name of his founder is inscribed, Afterwards, putting his two hands over his face and his beard, he kneels before the Sheikh, kisses his hand respectfully, and then they all go on with a grave step to take their places on the sheep-skins, which are spread in a half-circle around the interior of the hall. So soon as a circle is formed, the Dervishes together chant the Takbeer (Takbir, the exclamation Allahu akbar, 'God is exalted') and the Fatiha (Fatihah, the first chapter of the Qur'an). Immediately afterwards the shaikh pronournes the words La ilaha ill' Allah (There is no deity but God), and repeats them incessantly; to which the Dervishes repeat 'Allah' balancing themselves from side to side, and putting their hands over their faces, on their breasts, and their abdomen, and on their knees.

"The second scene is opened by the Hamdee Mohammedee, a hymn in honor of the Prophet, chanted by one of the elders placed on the right of the sheikh. During this chant the Dervishes continue to repeat the word 'Allah!' moving, however, their bodies forward and aft. A quarter of an hour later they all rise up, approach each other, and press their elbows against each other, balancing from right to left, and afterwards in a

reverse motion,—the right foot always firm, and the left in a periodical movement-, the reverse, of that of the body, all observing great precision of measure and cadence. ln the midst of 'this exercise, they cry out the words 'Ya Allah!' followed by that of 'Ya Hoo!' Some of the performers sigh. others sob, some sbed tears. others perspire great drops, and all have their eyes closed, their faces pale, and the eyes languishing.

"A pause of some minutes is followed by a third scene. It is performed in the middle of an Ilahec, chanted by the two elders on the right of the shaikh. The Ilahecs are spiritual cantiques, composed almost exclusively in Persian by sheiks deceased in the odour of sanctity. The Dervishes then hasten their movements, and. to prevent any relaxation, one of' the first among them puts himself in their centre, arid excites them by his example. If in the assembly there be, any strange Dervishes, which often happens, they give them, through politeness, this place of honour; and all fill it successively, the one after the other, shaking themselves as aforesaid. The only exception made is in favour of the Meylevees; these never perform any other dance than that peculiar to their own order, which consists in turning round on each heel in succession.

After a new pause commences the fourth scene. Now all the Dervishes take off their turbans, form a circle, bear -their arms shoulders against each other, and thus make the circuit of the hall at a measured pace, striking their feet at intervals against the floor, and all springing up at once. This dance continues during the llahees, chanted alternately by the two, elders to the loft of the sheikh. In the midst of this chant the cries of 'Ya Allah!' are increased doubly, as also those of 'Ya Hoot' with frightful howlings, shrieked by the Dervishes together in the dance. At the moment that they would


seem to stop from sheer exhaustion the sheikh makes a point of exerting them to new efforts by walking through their midst, making also himself most violent movements. He is next replaced by the two elders, who double the quickness of the step and the agitation of the body; they even straightened themselves up from time to time, and excite the envy or emulation of the others in their astonishing efforts to continue the dance until their strength is entirely exhausted.

"The fourth scene leads to the last, which is the most frightful of all, the wholly prostrated condition of the actors becoming converted into a species of ecstasy which they call Halel (Halah). It is in the midst of this abandonment of self, or rather of religious delirium, that they make use of red hot irons. Several cutlasses and other and other instruments of sharp-pointed iron are suspended in the niches of the hall, and upon a part of the wall to the right of the sheikh. Near the close of the forth scene, two Dervishes take down eight or nine of these instruments, heat them red-hot, and present them to the sheikh. He, after reciting some prayers over them, and invoking the founder of the Order, Abmed er Rufa'ee, breathes over them and raising them slightly to the mouth, gives them to the Dervishes, who ask for them with the greatest eagerness. Then it is that these fanatics, transported by frenzy, seize upon these irons, gloat upon them tenderly, lick them, bite them, hold them between their teeth, and end by cooling them in their mouths! Those who are unable to procure any, seize upon the cutlasses hanging on the wall with fury, and stick them into their sides, arms, and legs.

"Thanks to the fury of their frenzy, and to the amazing boldness which they deem a merit in the eyes of the Divinity, all stoically bear up against the pain which they experience with apparent gaiety. If, however. some of them fall under their sufferings, they throw themselves into the arms of their confrères and, but without, a complaint or the least sign of pain. Some minutes after this the sheikh walks round the hall, visits each one of the performers in turn, breathes upon their wounds, rubs them with saliva, recites prayers over them, and promises them speedy cures. It is said that twenty-four hours after-wards nothing is to be seen of their wounds.

"It is the common opinion among the Rufa'ees that the origin of those bloody practices can be traced back to the founder of of an the Order. They pretend that one day during the transport of his frenzy, Ahmed-el Rufa'ee put his legs in a burning basin of coals, and was immediately cured by the breath and saliva and the prayers of 'Abdul Kadi Ghilauee; they believe that their founder received this same prerogative from heaven, and that at his death he transmitted it to all the sheikhs his successors It is for this reason that they give these sharp instruments, and to these red-hot irons, and other objects employed by them in their mysterious frenzy, the name of God which signifies 'rose,' wishing to indicate thereby that the man made of them is as agreeable to the soul of the elect Dervishes, as the odor of this flower be to the voluptuary.

"These extraordinary exercises seem to have something prodigious in them, which imposes on common people, but they have not the same effect on the minds of men of good sense and reason. The latter believe less in the sanctity of these pretended thaumaturges than in the virtue of certain secrets which they adroitly use to keep up the illusion and the credulity of the spectators, even among tire Dervishes themselves. It is thus, perhaps, that some assemblies of these fanatics have given, in this age of light, and in the heart of the most enlightened nation, the ridiculous spectacle of these pious and barbarous buffooneries known by the name of convulsions. At all times, and amongst every people of the earth, weakness and credulity, enthusiasm and charlatanry have but too frequently profaned the most holy faith, and objects the most worthy of our veneration

"After the Rufa'ees, the Sa'dees have also the reputation of performing miracles, pretty much of the same sort as the preceding. 0ne reads in the institutes of this Order, that Sa'd ed Deen Jebawee, its founder, when cutting wood in the vicinity of Damascus, found three snakes of an enormous length, and that, after having incited some prayers an blown upon them, he caught them alive, and used them as a rope with which to bind his fagot. To this occurrence they ascribe the pretended virtue of the sheikhs and the Dervishes of this society, to find out snakes, to handle them, to bite them, and even to eat them, without any harm to themselves. Their exercises consist, like those of the Rufa'ees and other Orders, at first in seating themselves, and afterwards in rising upright; but in often changing the attitude, and in re-doubling their agitation even until they become overcome with fatigue, when they fall upon the floor motionless and without knowledge. Then the sheikh, aided by his vicars. employs no other means to draw them out of this state of unconsciousness than to rub their arms and legs, and to breathe into their ears the words 'Lu ilaha ill' Allah.'

"The Mevlevees are distinguished by the singularity of their dance, which has nothing in common with that of the other societies. They call it Som'a (Sama') in place of Davr (Daur), and the balls consecrated to it are called Sem'a khanehs.. Their construction is also different. The apartment represents a kind of pavilion, sufficiently light, and sustained by eight columns of wood. These Dervishes have also prayers and practices peculiar to themselves. Among them the public exercises are not ordinarily made by more than nine, eleven, or thirteen individuals. They commence by forming a circle, seated on sheep skin spread upon the floor at equal distances from each other; they remain nearly a half-bout in this position, the arms folded. the eyes closed, the head inclined, and absorbed in profound meditation


"'The sheikh, placed on the edge of his seat on a small carpet, breaks silence by a hymn in honour of the Divinity; afterwards he invites the assembly to chant with him the first chapter of the Koran. 'Let us chant the Fatiha,' he says, in 'glorifying the holy name of God, in honour of the blessed religion of the prophets, but above all, of Mohammed Muatapha, the greatest, the most august, the most magnificent of all the celestial envoys, and in memory of the first four Caliphs, of the sainted Fatimah, of the chaste Khadeeja, of the Imams Hasan and Husain, of all the martyrs of the memorable day, of the ten evangelical disciples, the virtuous sponsors of our sainted Prophet, of all his zealous and faithful disciples. of all the Imams Mujtahids (sacred interpreters), of all the doctors, of all the holy men and women of Mussulmanism. Let us chant also in honour of Hazreti Mevlana, the founder of our Order, of Hazreti Sultan ul 'Ulema (his father), of Sayid Burhan ed Dean (his teacher), of Sheikh Shems ed Din (his consecrator), of Valideh Sultan (his mother), of Mohammed 'Allay ad Deen Efendi (his son and vicar), of all the Chelebees (his successors),of all the sheikhs, of all the Dervishes, and all the protectors of our Order, to whom the Supreme Being deigns to give peace and mercy. Let us pray for the constant prosperity of our holy society, for the preservation of the very learned and venerable Chehebee Efendi (the General of the Order), our master and lord, for the preservation of the reigning Sultan, the very majestic and element Emperor of the Mussulman faith, for the prosperity of the Grand Vizier, and of the Sheikb ul Islam, and that of all the Mohammadan militia, of all the pilgrims of the holy city of Mekkeh. Let us pray for the repose of the souls of all the institutors, of all the sheikhs, and of all the Dervishes of all other Orders; for all good people, for alt these who have been distinguished by their good works, their foundations, and their acts of beneficence. Let us pray also for all the Mussulmans of one and the other sex of the east and the west, for the maintenance of all prosperity, for preventing all adversity, for the accomplishment of all salutary vows, and for the success of all praiseworthy enterprises; finally, let us ask God to deign to preserve in us the gift of His grace, and the fire of holy love.

"After the Fatiha, which the assembly chant in a body, the Sheikh recites the Fatiha and the Salawat, to which the dance of the Dervishes succeeds. Leaving their places all at once, they stand in a file to the left of the superior, and, approaching near him with slow steps, the arms folded, and the head bent to the floor, the first of the Dervishes, arrived nearly opposite the Sheikh, salutes, with a profound inclination, the tablet which is, on his seat, on which is the name of Hazreti Mevlana, the founder of the Order. Advancing next by two springs forward to the right side of the superior, he turns toward him, salutes him with reverence, and commences the dance, which consists in turning on the left heel, in advancing slowly, and almost insensibly making the turn of the hall, the eyes closed, and the arms open. He is followed by the second Dervish, he by the third, and so on with all the others, who end by filling up the whole of the hall, each repeating the same exercises separately, and all at a certain distance from each other.

"This dance lasts sometimes for a couple of hours; it is only interrupted by two short pauses, during which the Sheikh recites different prayers. Towards the close of the exercises, he takes a part in them himself, by placing himself in the midst of the Dervishes; then returning to his seat, he recites some Persian verses expressive of good wishes for the prosperity of the religion, and the State, The General of the Order is again named, also the reigning Sultan, in the following terms: 'The Emperor of the Mussalmans, and the most august of monarchs of the house of 'Othman, Sultan, son of a sultan, grandson of a sultan, Sultan —, son of Sultan —, Khan,' &c.

"Here the poem mentions all the princes of blood, the Grand Vizier, the Multee, all the Pashas of the empire, the 'Ulemas, all the Sheikhs, benefactors of the Order, and of all the Mussulman peers, invoking the benediction of heaven on the success of their arms against the enemies eat the empire. 'Finally, let us pray f or all the Dervishes present and absent, for all the friends of our holy society, and generally for all the faithful, dead and living, in the east and in the west.

The ceremony terminates by chanting the Fatiha, or first chapter of the Koran."

(John P. Brown, The Dervishes, or Oriental Spiritualism, 218 seqq.)

These ceremonies of zikr would at first sight appear to have little in common with original Muhammadanism, but there appears to be little doubt that the practice of reciting the word Allah and other' similar expressions, continenced in the days of Muhammad himself, and this even the Wahabis admit, who at the same time condemn, the extravagances of the Howling and Dancing Darveshes of Turkistan, Turkey, and Egypt.

A chapter is devoted to the Prophet's injunctions on the subject in all large hooks of traditions, called Babu 'z-Zikr, from which the following sayings of Muhammad have been selected:-

Whenever people sit and remember God they are surrounded by angels which cover them with God's favour, and peace descends upon them, and God remembers them in that assembly which is near him.

Verily there are angels who move to and fro on the roads and seek for the rememberers of God, and when they find an assembly remembering God, they say to one another," Come ye to that which ye were seeking" Then the angels cover them with their wings as far as the lowest heaven, called the region of the world, The Prophet said: —When the angels go to the court of God, God asks them, while knowing better than they. 'What


do my servants say and do? The angels say," They are reciting the Tasbih, the Takbir, and the Tahmid, and the Tamjid for Thee." And God says, "Have they ween Me?" The angels say, "No, by God, they have not seen Thee." Then God says "What would their condition be if they had seen Me?" The angels say, "If they had seen Thee, they would be more energetic in worshipping Thee and in reciting the Tamjid, and they would be more excessive in repeating the Tasbih." God says, "Then what do they want?" The angels say, "Paradise." Then God says. ' Have they seen Paradise?" The angels say, "We swear by God they have not." Then God says, "What would their state have been had they seen Paradise?" The angels say, "If they had seen Paradise, they would be very ambitious for it. and would be excessive wishers of it, such very great desirers of it." God says, ' What thing is it they seek protection from ?" The angels say, "From hell fire." God says, 'Have they seen the fire?' The angels say, "No, by God, if they had seen the fire - '"God says. "How would they have been had they seen the fire?" The angels say, "If they had seen the fire, they would be great runners from it, and would be great fearers of it" Then God says, "I take ye as witnesses that verily I have pardoned them." One of the angels said. "There is a person amongst them who is not a rememberer of Thee, and is only come on account of his own needs."

There is a polish for everything that takes rust, and the polish for the heart is the remembrance of God, and there is no act that redeems from God's punishments so much as the remembrance of Him. The Companions said, "Is not fighting with the infidels also like this?" He said, "No, although he lights until his sword be broken."

"Shall I not inform you of an action which is better for you than fighting with infidels and cutting off their heads, and their cutting off yours?" The Companions said, Yes, inform us." The Prophet, said, "These actions are remembering God."

'Abdullah ibn Aus said :—An 'Arabi came to the Prophet and asked," Which is the best of men?" The Prophet said, "Blessed is the person whose life is long and whose actions are good." The 'Arabi said, "O Prophet! which is the best of actions, and the moat rewarded?" He said, "The best of actions is this, that you separate from the world, and die whilst your tongue is moist in repeating the name of God."

A man said, "O Prophet of God, really the rules of Islam are many, tell me a thing by which I may lay hold of rewards." The Prophet said, "Let your tongue be always moist in the remembrance of God."

"Verily there are ninety nine names of God; whosoever counts them up shall enter into Paradise." And in another tradition it is added, "God is Witr and like Witr."

When Zu 'n-Nun (Jonah) the prophet prayed his Lord, when he was in the fish's Belly, he said, "There is no Deity but Thee, I extol Thy holiness. Verily I am of the unjust ones." And a Mussalman who supplicated God with this petition will have his prayers granted.

The best expressions are these four: Subhana Allah; al-Hamdu Lillahi, La ilaha illa 'llabu, and Allahu akbar; and it does not matter with which of them you begin.

Verily I like repeating these four expressions: O Holy God! Praise be to God! There is no deity but God! and God is Great! better than anything upon which the sun shines.

No one can bring a better deed on the Day ,if Resurrection (unless he shall have said the like or added to it) than he who has recited, "O Holy God! Praise be to Thee! one hundred times every morning and evening.

There are two expressions light upon the tongue and heavy in time scale of good works, and they are, "O holy God! Praise be to Thee!" and "O Holy God! the Mighty One!

That person who shall say," "There is no deity but God, who has no partner, to whom is dominion and praise and power," one hundred times, shall receive rewards equal to the emancipating of ten slaves: and one hundred good actions shall be written for him, and one hundred of his sins shall be blotted out and those words shall he a protection to him from the devil and his wickedness, in that day in which he shall have repeated them until the night. Nor can anyone perform a better deed for the Day of Resurrection than this, unless he has done even mere

Moses said, "O my Lord, teach me how I am to call upon Thee," And God said, "O Moses, recite' There is no deity but God! "Then Moses said, "O my Lord; every one of Thy people say this." And God said. "O Moses, if the seven heavens and their inhabitants and the seven earths were put into one scale, and this expression, 'There is no deity but God,' into another, these words would exceed in weight."

Reciting "O Holy God" is half the scale of good works, and reciting "God be praised," fills the scale. The recital of "There is no deity but one," removes the curtain between the worshipper and his God.

He who recites with an unsallied heart "There is no deity but God," shall have the doors of heaven open for him until he reaches the throne of God, as long as he abstains from great sins.

The ejaculation, "There is no power and strength but in God," is medicine for ninety-nine pains, the least of which is melancholy.

"There are two qualities which, being practised by anyone, shall cause him to enter Paradise: they are small and easy, and it is easy for anyone to practise them. One of them is this: saying 'God is holy' ten times after every prayer, 'Praised be God' ten times, and 'God is great' ten times." And verily I saw the Prophet counting these words on his hand and he would say. "Then


these words are one hundred and fifty the tongue in the day and night, but they one thousand and five hundred in the of actions, reckoning ten for one. And second is this: when be goes to his bedchamber, let him say, 'God is holy.' 'God be praised,' and God is great.' that is one hundred on the tongue and a thousand in the scales. Then which of you is it that commits two thousand live hundred vices in the day and night, so that these words may cover them?" The Companions said "If when we repeat these words we have so many rewards, why should we not say them?" The Prophet said, "The Devil comes to one of you when at prayers and says to him, 'Remember so-and-so.' till you have finished your prayers and the Devil comes to you in your bed-chamber, and is always making you sleep.

AZ-ZILLU 'L-AUWAL. "The first shade." A Sufi term for al-'Aqlu 'l-Auwal [SUFI.]

ZILLU 'LLAH. "The Shade of God," A Sufi term for the Insanu 'l-Kamil, or the "perfect man." [SUFI.]

AZ-ZILZAL. "The Earthquake." The title of the xcixth Surah of the Qur'an, beginning with the words '- When the earth shall quake with its quaking."

ZIMMAH. , pl. zinam, from the root zamm, "to blame." A compact, covenant, or contract, a league or treaty, any engagement or obligation, because the breaking thereof necessitates blame; and a right or due, for the neglect of which one is to be blamed. The word is also synonymous with aman, in this sense of security of life and property, protection or safeguard, and promise of such; hence ahlu 'z-zimmah, or with suppression of the noun ahlu, simply az-zimmah, the people with whom a compact or covenant has been made, and particularly the Kitabis, or the people of the book, i.e. Jews and Christians, and the Majusi or Sabeans, who pay the poll-tax called jazyah. [JAZYAH.] An individual of 'this class — namely, a free non—Muslim subject of a Muslim Government, who pays a poll-tax or capitation-tax, for which the Muslims are responsible for his security, personal freedom and religious toleration—is called zimmi (see the following article).

In the Qur'an, the word zimmah occurs once, in the sense of clientship, or good faith, as opposed to ties of blood. Surah ix, 7-10:-

"How can they who add gods to God be in league with God and with His Apostle, save those with whom ye made a league at the sacred temple? So long as they are true to you, be ye true to them: verily, God loveth those who fear hum,

"How can they? since it they prevail against you, they will not regard, in their dealing with you either ties of blood or good faith: With their mouths they content you, but their hearts are averse, and most of them are perverse doers.

"They sell the signs of God for a mean price, and turn others aside from his way of a truth, evil is in, that they do!

'They respect not with a believer either ties of blood or good faith; and those are transgressors.

In modern language, the word zimmah has frequently the meaning of conscience. (Compare Lane's Arabic Dictionary, in loco.)

ZIMMI. , a member of the Ahlu 'z-Zimmah, a non Muslims subject of a Muslim government, belonging to the Jewish, Christian, or Sabean creed. who, for the payment of a poll— or capitation-tax, enjoys security of his person and property in a Muhammadan country.

One of the most urgent duties enjoined by Muhammad upon the Muslim or true believer, was the Jihad fi Sabili 'llahi, or exertion in the road of God, i.e. warfare for the spread of Islam, amongst the infidels within and without Arabia [JIHAD]; thus the whole world came to be regarded as divided into two great portions, the Daru 'l-Harb and Daru 'l-Islam [DARU 'L-HARB, DARU 'L-ISLAM] —the territories of War and the territories of Peace. These two divisions, one of which represented the land of infidelity and darkness, the other that of light arid faiths, were supposed to be in a continual state of open or latent belligerency, until the Daru 'l-Islam should have absorbed the Daru 'l-Harb and faith conquered unbelief. Infidelity, however, admits of degrees. Its worst shape is idolatry, that is, the worship of idols instead of or Insides the one true God; and this, again, is a crime most abominable on the part of of Arabs, "since the Prophet was sent amongst them, and manifested himself in the midst of them, and the Qur'an was delivered down in their language." Of an equally atrocious character is the infidelity of apostates, "because they have become infidels, after having been led into the way of faith, and made acquainted with its excellence." In the case of neither, therefore, is a compromise admissible they must accept or re-embrace the faith, or pay with their lives the full penalty of their crime.

With regard to the idolaters of a non-Arabic or 'Ajam country, which latter expression in the times of early Islam particularly the applied to the Persian Empire, ash-Shafi'i maintains that destruction is incurred by them also; but the other learned doctors law agree that it is lawful to reduce them to slavery, thus allowing them, as it were, a of respite during which it may please God to direct them into the right path, but making, at the same time, their persons and substance subservient to the cause of Islam.

The least objectionable form of infidelity in the eyes of Muhammad and his followers, Abu is that of the Kitabis or people of the Book ahlu 'l-kitab), i.e. the Jews as possessors of the Old Testament, or Taurat, and the Christians, to whom. Moreover, the Injil (Gospel,


was revealed. As they are not guilty of an absolute denial, but only of a partial perversion of the truth, only part of the punishment for disbelief is their due, and it is imposed upon them in the shape of a tribute. called poll- or capitation tax [JAZYAH.], by means of which they secure protection for their property, personal freedom, and religious toleration from the Muslim Government. The same privilege is extended to the Majusi or Sabeans whose particular form of worship was more leniently judged by Muhammad and the Traditionists than that if the idolaters of Persia.

This is the state of things in a country inhabited by such infidels be conquered by a Muslim army: theoretically, the inhabitants, together with their wives and children are considered as plunder and property of the State, and it would be lawful to reduce them to slavery. In practice, however, the milder course prevails, and by paying the stipulated capitation-tax.. the subdued people become, in the quality of Zimmis. free subjects of the conquering power, whose condition is but little inferior to that of their Muslim fellow-subjects.

The relations of an alien or Harbi —that is, one who belongs to the people of the Daru 'l-harb - to a Muslim community which he visits, in time of peace, for the sake of traffic or any other legitimate purpose, are regulated by that high conception of the duties of hospitality, which was innate with the ancient Arab, and which prompted him to defend and honour even a mortal enemy, as soon as he might have crossed as a chance guest the threshold of his tent.

On entering the territory, an alien can claim a guest's protection from the first met Muslim, be it even the lowest peasant, and having obtained this protection, he is entitled to remain in the country unmolested fur the term of a whole year. The authorities, however must within the year give him notice that, if he should remain until its completion, capitation-tax will be imposed upon him, and in such notice the permission for his stay may be limited to some months only, if for some reason or other it should appear advisable or necessary to do so. If the alien continue in the country beyond the full or limited time prescribed, he becomes ipso facto liable to the capitation-tax, and if, after thus becoming a Zimmi, he be desirous of returning to his own country, he may be prevented, as now being bound to the Muslim Government by a contract of fealty. In similar manner an alien becomes a Zimmi upon purchasing tribute land and paying the impost our it, and is then liable to capitation-tax for time ensuing year. An alien woman turns Zimmiyah by marrying a Zimmi, because thereby she undertakes to reside in time Muhammadan state. (See Hamilton's Hidayah, vol in, p. 196.)

Zimmis do not subject themselves to the laws of Islam, either with respect to things which are merely of a religious mature, such as tussling and prayer, or with respect to those temporal acts which, though contrary to the Muhammadan religion, may be legal by their own, such as the sale of wine or swine's flesh. The construction of places of worship in the Muslim territory is unlawful for them unless within their own houses, but of churches and synagogues originally belonging to Christians and Jews be destroyed or fall to decay, they are at liberty to rebuild rend repair them. This is the rule with regard to cities, because, as the tokens of Islam, such as public prayer, festivals, &c., appear there, Zimmis should not be permitted to exhibit the tokens of infidelity in the face of them; in villages and hamlets, on the other hand, where the tokens of Islam do not appear, there is no occasion to prevent the construction of Christian and Jewish places of worship, (See Haimilton's Hidayah, vol. ii. p. 219.)

Save some slight restrictions with regard to dress rind equipage, Zimmis are held in all transactions of daily life pretty much on a footing of equality with Muslims. Like children, women and slaves, a Zimmni has no legal share in the booty, but only a discretionary allowance out of it, if he has taken part in the fight, If he has acted as a guide, and his services as such have been attended with any eminent advantage, he may. however, receive even a larger share than a Muhammadan cornbatant. (Hamilton's Hidayah, vol. ii., p I78.)

Every marriage that is lawful between two Muslims, is lawful between two Zimmis. Marriages that are not lawful between two Muslims are of several kinds. Of these there is the marriage without witnesses. When a Zimmi marries a Zimmiyah without witnesses, and such marriages are sanctioned by their religion, the marriage is lawful. So that, if they should afterwards embrace the Muslim faith, the marriage would still be established. And in like manner, if they should not, embrace that faith, but should both claim from the judge the application of the rules of Islam, or one of them should make such a claim, the judge is not to separate them. There is also the marriage of a woman during her 'iddah on account of another man ['IDDAH]. When a Zimmi marries a woman in her 'iddah for another man, that man being a Muslim, the marriage is invalid, and may be objected to before their adoption of the Muhamnadan religion, even though incur own religion should recognise time legality of marriage in the state of 'iddah; but if the 'iddah were rendered incumbent on the woman on account of an infidel, and marriages in a state of 'iddah are accounted lawful in the religion of time parties, it cannot be objected to while they remain in a state of infidelity, according to general agreement. If under these circumstances they afterwards adopt the Muslim faith, the marriage remains fixed and established, according to Abu Hanifah, whose decision is considered valid in spite of the different opinions of Abu Yusuf and Muhammad, and the judge is not to separate them, though both of them or


only one of them should adopt the faith, or both or only one of them should bring the matter before the judge. In the Mabsut it is stated that the difference between the masters was only when the reference to the judge or the adoption of the faith, takes place during the subsistence of the 'idahh, but where it does not take place till after the 'iddah has expired, the parties are not to be separated according to all their opinions (Baillie's Digest of Moohummuden Law, Hanifeea, p. 178.)

If a Zimmi marry a Zimamiyah, making the dower consist of wine or pork, and one or both should afterwards embrace the faith before the wife has obtained seisin, according to Abu Hanifah, the woman is entitled to receive the actual article, if it has been "identically specified," but if not, the estimated value of the wine, or her proper dower in lieu of the pork, as the case may be. Abu Yusuf maintains that she is to have her proper dower, and Muhammad the estimated value in all cases. If a Christian Zimmi marry a Christian Zimmiyah, without specifying any dower, or on a specified dower consisting of carrion (flesh of an animal not lawfully slain), such as may be deemed lawful by members of their profession, and have sexual intercourse with her, or divorce her without consummation, or die without consummation, according to Abu Hanifah, she is not entitled to any dower, although both parties may have embraced the faith in the interim; but according to Abu Yusuf and Muhammad, she will take her proper dower if the husband consummate the marriage, or die without consummation, and will be entitled to a present if she be divorced without consummation. (A. Rumsey, Moohummudun Law of Inheritance, p. 373.)

When one of an infidel married couple embraces the Muhammadan faith, Islam is to be presented to the other, and if the other adopt it, good and well: if not, they are to be separated. If the party is silent and says nothing, the judge is to present Islam to him time after time, till the completion of three, by way of caution. And there is no difference between a discerning youth and one who is the adult; so that a separation is to be made equally on the refusal of the former as of the are latter, according to Abu Hanifah and the Imam Muhammad. But if one of the parties be young and without sufficient discernment, it is necessary to wait till he has understanding; and when he has understanding. Islam is then to be presented to him; and if he adopt it, well; if not, a separation is to be made without waiting for his arriving at puberty. And if he be mad, Islam is to be presented to his parents, and it they, or one of them, should embrace it, good and well; if not, a separation is to be made between the married parties. If the husband should embrace the faith and the wife refuse, the separation is not accounted repudiation; but if the wife should embrace the faith and the husband decline, the separation in consequence is considered a repudiation, since the cause of separation proceeds from him. When a separation takes place between them by reason of refusal, and it is after consummation, she is entitled to the whole dower; and if it is before consummation and through his refusal, she is entitled to half the dower; but if through her own refusal, she has no dower at all. If, however, the husband of a Kitabiyah adopt the faith, their marriage remains un-affected in accordance with the general principle, that the marriage between a Muslim and a Kitabiyah is originally lawful. (Bailley, Hanifeea Code, p. 180.)

When a Zimmi has repudiated his Zimmiyah wife three times, and then behaves to her as he had done before the repudiation, without marrying her again, or saying the words of the contract over her; it when his wife has obtained a kuhl or release [KHUL'], and he then acts to her as before without renewing the contact—they are to be separated, even though they should not bring the matter to the judge. But if he repudiates her three times, and then renews the contract of marriage with her without her being married to another, they are not to be separated. (Ibi.)

The child follows the religion of the better of its parents. Hence, if one of them be a Muslim, the child is of the Muslim religion. The mother could not he so ab initio, but only in consequence of conversion to the Muhammadan faith, for a Muslim woman cannot lawfully be the wife of any other than a man of her own religion. So also, if one of them should subsequently embrace Islam having an Infant child, the infant would become Muslim by virtue of the parent's conversion, that is, when there is no difference of dar, by both of the parents being either within the Daru'I-Islam or the Daru 'l-Harb, or by the child being in the former at the time that its parent embraces the Muslim faith in the foreign country, for he then becomes constructively one of the Muslim people; but when the child is in the foreign country, and the parent within the Muslim territory, and he adopt the faith there, the child does not follow him, and is not a Muslim. A Majusi is worse than a Kitabi: and if one of the parents be a Majusi and the other Kitabi, the child is a Kitabi, and may be lawfully married by a Muslim, to whom also things slaughtered by the child would be lawful.

Generally, an infidel cannot inherit from a believer, nor, on the other hand, can a believer inherit from an infidel; but infidel subjects of a Muslim state can inherit from one another. And it is immaterial, for such a purpose, whether they be of the same religion or not; all unbelievers being, in this respect, considered as of one class. A Muslim may, however, make a bequest to a Zimmi and a Zimmi to a Muslim, as well as to another infidel, whether of the same or of a different religion, not being a hostile alien. The testamentary power of a Zimmi is subject to the same limitations as that of a Muslim, so that bequests to a person entitled by inheritance are invalid, and bequests to any other person are invalid so far as they exceed


one-third of the testators property. This for the reason that, on entering into the compact of Zimmah, he has agreed so conform to the law of Islam in all temporal concerns. (See A. Rumsey, Moohunmudan Law of Inheritance, p. 222.)

The will of Zimmi for secular purposes is valid, according to all opinions. Other than secular purposes are of four different kinds. First, there are purposes which are yurbah, or a means of approach to Almighty God, both with Zimmis and Muslims; and bequests for these purposes are valid, whether they be to a set of particular persons or not. Thus, when a Kitabi has directed, by his will, that slaves be purchased and emancipated on his account, whether with or without a specification of individuals, or that a third of his property be bestowed in charity on beggars and the indigent, or expended in lighting a lamp in the Baitu 'l-Muqaddas or Holy Temple of Jerusalem, or in making war against the infidel, Tartars, the bequest is valid.

Second, there are purposes which are sinful both with the Zimmis and the Muslims; and bequests for these purposes are valid, if they are to a set of particular persons, and the bequest is a gift without regard to the purposes; but if the persons are not particularised. the bequest is void. If, therefore, a Zimmi should bequeath, for instance, a third of his property for the support of dissolute women, singers, and the like, the bequest is valid, if such persons are particularised and it is a gift to them; but it they are not particularised, it is void.

Third, there are purposes which are qurbah with the Muslims, but sinful with the Zimmis. In this, as in the previous case, the bequest is a gift and valid if in favor of a set of particular persons; but it is void, if the persons are not particularised. Hence, if the third of a man's property s to be expended in sending a set of Muslims on pilgrimage, or building a masjid, and the persons are particularised, the bequest or gift is valid, and considered to be coupled with a counsel to accomplish the stated purpose, leaving them at liberty to perform the pilgrimage, or erect the mosque, or not, as they please.

Fourth and Last.. there are purposes which are sinful with a Muslim, but qurbah or meritorious with a Zimmi; and bequests for these are valid according to Abu Hanifah, whether the persons be particularised or not.; but void, according to Abu Yusuf and the Imam Muhammad, when they are not specified. If, for instance, a Kitabi bequeath a third of his property for the erection of a church or synagogue; or bequeath his mansion to be converted into a place of worship of his religion, the bequest, according to the two disciples, is void, as sinful in the eyes of a Muslim, unless it is for a particular class of persons, when it is a gift to them; but, according to Abu Hanifah, it is valid under all circumstances. This, however, subject to the condition stated above, that the erection of such buildings takes place in villages and not in towns, the bequest in the latter case being inoperative. (See Bailley, Hanifeea Code., p. 673.)

If a Jew or a Christian. being in sound health build a church or a synagogue, and then direct such building is an inheritance, according to all the doctors and therefore descent is to lie heirs in the same manner as any other of the founder's properly. From the point of view taken by the two disciples this is evident enough. But with regard to Abu Hanifah's doctrine, the question may be raised: What is the difference between the building of a church or synagogue in the time of health, and the bequeathing it by will, that Aba Hanifah should hold it inheritable in the former instance, and not in the latter. This "objection" is met in the Hiddyah with the "reply "; "that ii is not the mere erecting (of the church, &c.) which extinguishes the builder's property, but the exclusive dedication of the building to the service of God, as in the case of mosques erected by Mussulmans: and as an infidel place of worship is not dedicated to God indisputably, it therefore still remains the property of the founder, and is consequently inheritable (in common with his other effects); whereas a bequest, on the contrary, is used for the very purpose of destroying a right of property." (Hidayah. Grady's Translation, p. 696.)


ZINDIQ. . A term now used to express a person in a hopeless state of infidelity. Some say the word is derived from the Persian Zan-din, i.e. a woman's religion. Others assert, that it is a term of relation to the word Zand or Zend, which means "explanation," i.e. the explanation of the book of Zardusht or Zoroaster. (See Lanes Arabic Dictionary, in loco.)


ZIYARAH. .from the root zaur, "to visit," visitation, particularly of the tomb of the Prophet, and of the grave of any martyr or saint of the Muhammadan faith. In India and Central Asia, the word, always pronounced ziyarat, is by way of abbreviation used for ziyarat-guh, i.e. for the place of such visitation, or the shrine connected with it.

Although it is held by Wahhabis and other Muslim puritans that the Prophet forbade the visitation of graves for the purposes of devotion, the custom has become so common that it may be considered part of the Muhammadan religion. And, indeed, it Is difficult to believe that a religious teacher of Muhammad's cast of mind should have in principle opposed a practice which is so natural to the human heart. However much he may have objected to the clamorous wailings and lamentations over the dead, in which the pagan Arabs of the ignorance, especially the women indulged, he was not likely to be insensible to the solemn lesson which the resting place of the departed teaches the living


or to stifle in his followers the pious remembrance of beloved friends and kindred who have gone before. We see, therefore, no reason to doubt the genuineness of the following tradition, which we translate from the Mishkat, belonging to the Library of the lndia Office (Arabic MSS., No. 2143. New Catalogue. 154), and which the complier of that work has taken from such authorities as Muslim, Ibn Hajah, and Tirmizi, &c.

Beraidah related the Apostle of God said I forbade you to visit the graves, but you may visit them now. . . ." (Muslim.) Abu Hurairah related: the Prophet visited the grave of has mother, and he wept and caused those who were around him to weep also. Then he said; "I begged leave from my Lord to ask forgiveness for her, but it was not granted me; then I begged leave to visit her grave, and It was granted me; visit therefore the graves, for they remind you of death." (Muslim.)

Buraidah related.: The Apostle of God used to instruct them, when they issued forth to the burial-places, to pronounce the words "Peace ho upon you, O ye people of these abodes from amongst the Believers and the Resigned; and we, if God please, are surely overtaking you to ask salvation from God for us and you." (Muslim.)

Ibn 'Abbas rotated: The Prophet passed by some grave in al-Madinah, and he turned his face towards them and said: "Peace be upon you, O ye people of the graves; may God forgive us and you; ye are the van of its and we (following) in your steps."

'Ayishah related that when the turn of her night had come on the Prophet's part, he used to step out towards the end of the night into al-BaqI' (the burial-ground of al-Madinah) and to say: "Peace be with the abode of a believing people; and the time that has been promised you as your appointed term may come to you on the morrow (speedily); and we, if please God, are overtaking you. O God, grant forgiveness to the people of Baqin 'I- Garqad." She asked: "What shall I say, O Apostle of God, to wit, on visiting the graves?" He replied; "Say peace be upon the people of these abodes from amongst the Believers and the Resigned, and God have compassion on those of us that go before and those that follow; and we, if please God, are overtaking you." (Muslim.)

Muhammad ibn Nu'am, related the Prophet said. "He who visits the grave of his father and mother, or of either of them, on every Friday, his sins ate forgiven, and he is written down as one pious" (Baihaqi).

Ibn Mas'ud related, the Apostle of God said: "I had forbidden you to visit the graves, but now ye may visit them, for they detach from this world and remind of the world to come. (Ibn Majah.)

Abu Hurairah related : The Apostle of God scorned women visiting the graves" To this the compiler of the Mishkat adds: At-Tirmizi calls this tradition a well-supported and genuine one, and says: "Some of the learned are of opinion that this happened before the Prophet permitted (be visitation of the graves. but that when he did so, both men and women were included in the permission; and some again allege, that he only disapproved of women visiting the graves, because they are but little given to patience and much to fear."

In the face of these texts we cannot wonder that the practice of visiting the graves forms a marked feature in the religious life of the Muhammnadans, and that the tomb of the founder ot Islam and the burial-places of its chief confessors have become the objects of great devotional reverence. Pilgrims to Makkah (except the Wahhabis) always proceed to al-Madinah to visit the Prophet's shrine and to claim an interest in his intercessions, and in all Muhammadan countries there are ziyats or "shrines," which are visited by devotees in order to obtain the intercessions of the departed saint. Such a ziyat is the grave of Khwajah 'Abdu 'llah Ansari, who flourished about the time of our King John, A,D. 1200, and who established such a reputation for sanctity that even to this day his tomb, at Ghsarghaiah near Herat, is visited by pilgrims from all parts of the province. This tomb is an exceedingly fine piece of Oriental sculpture. . Upon its marble slabs are inscribed, in the finest sulus, writing. verses from the Qur'an. But the chief historic interest in the shrine of this saint is found in the fact that Dost Muhammad Khan, the great Afghan Ameer of Cabal (A.D. 1863), requested that his bones should be interred at the feet of Khwaijah Abdu 'llah, in order that his dark deeds of blood may obtain forgiveness through the potent intercession of this ancient saint. Such is one of the many instances of the great importance which Eastern rulers have attached to the sanctity of the very ground in which have been buried the remains of some great teacher or ascetic.

In towns and in great centres of population. the tombs which are visited at ziyarats are unusually substantial structures; but in villages they are often the most simple graves, marked by a few flags, and surrounded by a low wall to keep the sacred spot free from defilement. Oftentimes, the Eastern traveller will find a ziyarat on the road-side of some desert. highway. Probably it is the resting-place of some pilgrim who, returning from Makkah - died of disease or was slain by highway robbers, in either cubes case, according to the doctrines of Islam, suffering a martyr's death. [MARTYR.] Such a ziyarat will be taken charge of by some poor derwesh, or faqir, who will erect a bed near the sacred spot, and supply the weary traveller with a cup of cold water, as he stops and raises his hands in supplication at the shrine of the martyred saint.

The cure performed at ziyarats are diversified. Some will be celebrated as the place where rheumatism can be cured, others are suitable for small-pox patients, whilst some have even gained a reputation as places of healing for those who are bitten by mad dogs. The. grave of Khushhal Khan Khatak the warrior poet of the Afghans, in the Peshawar


valley, is visited by thousands of childless women.

The ziyarats are always visited with the feet uncovered, and when the grave is covered with stones or pebbles, these are used to rub upon the afflicted limbs. Some more substantial monuments are supplied with bushes, which are used for the double purpose of cleaning up time courtyard and for rubbing upon the diseased body of the devotee.

Whose ziyarats are always lighted up with small lamps on Thursday evening, which is the beginning of the Eastern Friday. But Sunday is held to be a propitious day for visiting shrines.

Adjoining many ziyarats of eminence there will be mosques supported by large endowments, in which will be found a large number of students. Such is the renowned zayarat of Kaka Sahib in the Khatak hills on the Afghan frontier. Many ziyarats are very largely endowed by princes and nobles, who have believed that they have obtained assistance from the intercessions of the departed saint There is, however, no proof that Muhammad ever encouraged the belief that the prayers of departed saints were of any avail in the presence of the Almighty. Indeed, it is a distinctive teaching of Islam that even the Prophet himself cannot intercede for his own people until the Day of Judgment. [INTERCESSION.]

ZODIAC, The signs of. . Arabic mintaqatu 'l-buruj .

"The girdle or zone of towers." Greek Mentioned three times in the Qur'an.

Surah lxxxv. 1:

By the heaven with its Towers!" (Buruj.)

Surah xxv. 62:

"Blessed be He who hath placed in the Heaven the sign of the Zodiac! who hath placed in it the Lamp of the Sun, and the light-giving Moon!"

Surah xv. 16:

"We have set the signs at the zodiac in the Heavens, and adorned and decked them forth for the beholders.


"And We guard them from every stoned Satan.

Save such as steal a hearing: and him doth a visible flame pursue."

In explanation of the last verses commentators tell us that the devils listen at time gate of heaven for scraps of the knowledge of futurity, and when detected by the angels, are pelted with shooting stars (see Surah iii, 31: "the pelted devil "; also Surtah xxxvii. 8: 'hurled at from every side").

So in the Talmud, in Chagiya xvi. 1, the shaeem, or "demons," are said to learn the secrets of the future by listening behind the or "veil."

The names of the signs are:

I. Hamal, ram.
2. Saur, Bull.
3. Jauza', Twins.
4. Sartan, Crab,
5. Asad, Lion.
6. Sumbalah, lit, an "ear of corn," Virgin.
7. Mizan, Scales.
8. 'Aqrab, Scorpion.
9. Qaus, Archer.
10. Jadi, He.goat.
11. Dalw Watering-pot.
12. Hul, Fish.

ZOROASTRIANISM.. The ancient religion of Persia is only referred to once in the Qur'an, Surah xxii. 17, as the religion of the Majus the Magians. Most Muhammadan writers, especially amongst the Shi'ahs, believe them to have formerly possessed a revelation from God which they have since lost. [AL-MAJUS.]

ZUBAIR IBN AL-'AUWAM.. Cousin german to Muhammad, and one of the first who embrace his religion. He is one of the ten, called al-'Asharah al-Mubashsharah, to whom the Prophet gave certain assurances of Paradise. He was slain by 'Amr ibn Jurmuz on the day of the battle of the Camel (wag'atu 'l-Jamal) A.H. 6.

ZUHA.. (1) That part of the day about half-way between sunrise and noon,

(2) A period of voluntary prayer. [PRAYER.]

(3) Az-Zaha, the title of the xciiird Surah of the Qur'an, which begins with the words. By the noon-day brightness" (zuha).

ZUHD.. Abstinence; a religious life. exercising oneself in the service of God; especially being abstinent in respect of eating; subduing the passions.

AZ-ZUKHRUF.. "Gilding," The name of the xliiird Surah of the Qur'an. in the 34th verse of which the word occurs: "And but that men would then have been one nation, we would have made for those who misbelieve in the Merciful, one root of silver for their houses, and steps up thereto which they might mount: and to these houses doors, and bedsteads on which they might recline; and gilding."

ZULAIKHA', more correctly ZALIKHA.. The wife of Potiphar (Qit'fir). Al-Baizawi says she was also called Ra'il. An account of her tempting Joseph is found in the xiith Surah of the Qur'an, 23—25:-

"And she in whose house he was, conceived a passion for him, and she shut the doors and said, Come hither.' He said, 'God keep me! Verily my lord hath given me a good home: verily the injurious shall not. prosper.'

"But she longed for him; and he had longed for her had he not seen a token from his Lord (the apparition of his father, who said, 'Hereafter shall the names of thy brethren, engraven on precious atones, shine on the breast of the High Priest. Shall thine be blotted out?') Thus we averted evil and defilement from him; verily he was one of our sincere servants.

And they both made for the door, and she rent his shirt from behind; and at the door they met her lord. 'What.,' said she, 'shall be the recompense of him who intended evil to my family, but a prison or a sore punishment?"

"He said,' She solicited me to evil.' And a witness in her own family (an infant in the cradle) witnessed: 'if his shirt be rent in front, then hath she spoken truth, and he is a liar: " 'But if his shirt he rent from behind, then she hath lied and he is a man of truth.'

"And when his lord saw his shirt torn from behind, he said, 'This verily is one of your devices I verily your devices are great!

"'Joseph! turn away from this; and thou O wife, ask pardon for thy crime: verily thou hast sinned.'

"And in the city the women said, 'The wife of the Prince hath solicited her servant: he hath fired her with love; verily we perceive her to be in a manifest error.'

"And when she heard of their cabal, she sent to them and got ready a banquet for them, and gave each one of them a knife, and said, Joseph, come forth to them.' And when they saw him they extolled him, and cut their hands (instead of their food, through surprise at his beauty). and said, 'God keep us! This is no man! This is none other than a noble angel!' "She said, This, then, is he about whom ye blamed me. And I wished him indeed to yield to my desires, but he stood firm. But if he obey not my command, he shall surely be cast into prison, and become one of the contemptible.'

He said, 'O my Lord! I prefer the prison to compliance with her bidding, but unless Thou turn away their snares from me, I shall play the youth with them, and become one of the unwise'.

"So his Lord heard him and turned aside their snares from him: verily He is the Hearer, the Knower.


"Then resolved they, even after they had seen the signs of his innocence, to imprison him for a time."

The explanation put into parentheses are notes of Mr. Rodwell's, in whose translation the passage is given and who quotes the corresponding Talmudic legends.

This story of 'Yusuf wa Zulaikha' has been celebrated in a well-known Persian poem by 'Abdu 'r-Rahman Jami, and hence Joseph has become the Adonis of the East.

ZU 'L-FIQAR. . Lit. "The Lord of the Vertebraeof the back." The name of the celebrated sword which Muhammad gave to his son-in-law 'Ali.

ZU 'L-HIJJAH. . Lit. "The Lord of the Pilgrimage." The twelfth month of the Muhammadan year; so called because it is the month appointed for the Makkan pilgrimage.

ZU 'L-JALAL. . "Lord of Majesty." One of the meaty-nine attributes of God. See Qur'an, Surah lv. 78: "Blessed be the name of thy Lord possessed of majesty and glory."

ZU 'L-KIFL. .Lit. "Lord of a portion." A worthy mentioned in the Qur'an, Surah xxi. 85: "And Ishmael, and Idris, and Zu 'l-Kifl, all of these were patient, and we made them enter into our mercy verily they were among the righteous." Al-Baizawi says he was so called because he had a portion with God the Moat High, and guaranteed his people, or because he had double the work of the prophets of his time, and their reward. According to some writers, he was either Elias, or Joshua, or Zachariah.

The root kafl; having also the meaning of "care," "support," other interpreters identify him with the Obadiah of 1 Kings xviii. 4, who supported one hundred prophets in the cave; or Ezekiel, who is called Kafil by the Arabs. See Niebubr, Travels, vol. ii. p. 265.

ZULM. .Lit. "Putting a thing not in its proper place." (Ar-Raghib,in loco.) Wrong-doing; acting tyrannically. Muhammad ibn at-Taiyib, the author of Annotations on the Qamus, says zulm is of three kinds (1)between man and God. (2) between man and man, (3) between man and himself. In the Surah iii. 60: "God loves not the tyrants (az-zalimina)"

Surah iii. 104: "God desires not tyranny zulman) unto the worlds."

Surah xxxi. 12: "Associating (with God) is a mighty wrong (zuImun 'azimun)."

Surah ii. 54 : "It was themselves they were wronging (kanu anfusa-hum yazlimuna)."

ZULMAH. .pl. zulamat. "Darkness."" A term used in theology for (1) Ignorance, (2) Belief in a plurality of gods, (3) Transgressions, (4) Afflictions.

Qur'an, Surah xxiv. 40: "Or like darkness (ka-zulumatin) on a deep sea there covers it a wave above which is a wave, above which is a cloud as darkness one above another:- see it; for he to whom God has given as light, he has no light.

ZU 'L-QA'DAH. Lit. The "Mater of Truce." The eleventh month of the Muhammadan year, so called because it was the month in which the ancient Arabs abstained from warfare. [MONTHS.]

ZU 'L-QARNAIN. Lit. He of the two horns." A celebrated personage mentioned in the 18th chapter of the Qur'an, who is generally considered to be Alexander the Great, although Muslim writers hold him to have been contemporary with Abraham.

Al-Qastatani, the commentator on at-Bukhari, says: "Zu 'l-qarnain was a king named Sakandar, whose wazir, or chancellor, was Khizr [KHIZR], and was contemporary with Abraham, the Friend of God, with whom he visited the Ka'bah at Makkah. There is some difference of opinion as to his being a prophet, but all learned men are agreed that he was a man of faith and piety."

Al-Baizawi says: "He was Sakandar ar-Rumi, King of Persia and Greece."

Al-Kamalain says: "He was Sakandar ar-Rumi, but was contemporary with Abraham, and not the Sakandar who lived about three hundred years before Christ, who was an infidel."

Muhammad, in his Qur'an, whilst professing to give an inspired account of Zu 'l-qarnain, supplies us with but a confused description, as fellows:—

"They will ask thee of Zu' l-qarnain. Say: I will recite to you an account of him. Verity We (God) established his power upon the earth, and We gave him a means to accomplish every end; so he followed his way, and when he reached the setting of the sun, he found it to set in a miry fount; and hard by he found a people. We (God) said, 'O Zu 'l-qarnain! whether thou chastise or whether thou treat them generously '— 'As for him who is impious,' he said, we will chastise him;' then shall he be taken back to his Lord, and He wilt chastise him with a grievous chastisement. But as to him who believeth, and doeth that which is right, he shall have a generous recompense, and We will lay on them our easy behests. Then followed he a route, until when he reached the rising of the sun, he found it to rise on a people to whom We had given no shelter from it. Thus it was. And We had a full knowledge of the forces that were with him. Then followed he a route, until he came between the two mountains, beneath which he found a people who scarce understood a language. They said, O Zu'l-qarain! Verily Gog and Magog i.e. the barbarous people of Eastern Asia) waste this land; shall we then pay thee tribute, so thou build a rampart between us and them? He said. Better


than your tribute is the might. wherewith my Lord hath strengthened me; but help me strenuously, and I Will set a barrier between you and them. Bring me blocks of iron' until when it filled the space between the mountain sides; Blow.' said he, 'upon it '—- until when he had set it on fire he said,' ' Bring me molten brass that I may pour upon it. And Gog and Magog were not able to scale it, neither were they able to dig through it. 'This,' said he, 'is a mercy from my Lord.'" (Qur'an Surah xviii. 82-96)

There are different opinions as to the reason of the surname, "two-horned." Some think it was given him because he was King of the East and of the West, or because he had made expeditions to both those extreme parts at the earth; or else because he had two horns on his diadem, or two curls of hair, like horns, on his forehead. Perhaps there is some allusion to the he-goat of Daniel, of although he is represented with but one horn. (Dan. viii. 5..)

AZ-ZUMAR. "Troops." The title of the xxxixth Surah of the Qur'an, in the 73rd verse of which the word occurs: "But those who fear God shall be driven to Paradise in troops."

ZUNNAR. . In Persia, the belt worn by Christians and Jews. In India, the Brahmanical thread. A term used amongst the Sufis for sincerity in the path of religion. (Kashfu 'l-Istilakat, in loco.)

ZU 'N-NUN. Lit. "Man of the fish." A tale given to the Prophet Jonah, in Qur'an, Surah xii. 37. [JONAH.]

ZURAH. Lit. "That which is very distant." A term used by al-Baizawi the commentator for the Baitu 'l-Ma'mur, or the model of the Kabah, which is said to be in the fourth heaven, and is referred to in the Qur'an, Surah Iii. 4: "By the visited home (i.e. Baitu 'l-Ma'mur)." (See al- Baizawi, in Ioco.)

ZU 'R-RAHIM. pl. zawu 'l-arham, or ulu- 'l-arham, Lit. "A possessor of the womb." A uterine relation. The plural form ulu 'l-arham occurs twice in the Qur'an.

Surah viii. 76: "And they who have believed and have since fled their country, and fought at your side, these also are of you. Those who are united by ties of blood ulu 'l-arham) are the nearest of kin to each other according to the Book of God. Verily God knoweth all things."

Surah xxxiii 6 "Nearer of kin to the faithful is the Prophet, than they are to their own selves. His wives are their mothers. According to the Book of God, they who are related by blood (ulu 'l-arham) are nearer the one In the other than other believers, and than those who have fled their country for the cause of God: but whatever kindness ye show to your kindred, shall be noted down in the Book."

Hughes' Dictionary of Islam

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