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DICTIONARY OF ISLAM.
FAI' Booty obtained from infidels. According to Muhammad ibn Tahir, fai' is booty taken from a country which submits to Islam without resistence, as distinguished from ghanimah, or plunder. The Khalifah 'Umar said it was the special privilege of the Prophet to take booty as well as plunder, a privilege not permitted to any other prophet.
'Ani ibn Malik says the Prophet used to divide the booty on the same day he took it, and would give two shares to a man with a wife, and only one share to a man without one. (Mishkat, book xvii c xii.)
Muhammad is related to have said, "Do not put faith in a bad omen, but rather take a good one." The people asked, "What is a good omen?" And he replied, "Any good word which any of you may hear."
Ibn Abbas says, "The Prophet used to take good omens by men's names, but he would not take bad omens."
Qat'an ibn Qabisah says, "The Prophet forbade taking omens from the running of animals, the flight of birds, and from throwing pebbles, which were done by the idolators of Arabia." (Mishkat, book xxi c ii)
It is, however, very commonly practised
amongst the Muhammadans of India. For example, if a person start out on an important journey and he meet a woman first, he will take it as a bad omen, and it he meet a man he will regard it as a good one.
FALL The (of Adam). Is known amongst Muslim writers as zallatu Adam, or the fall or slip of Adam. The term zallah, or "a slip" or "error", being applied to prophets, but not zamb, " a sin", which they say prophets do not commit.
The following is the account of Adam's "slip", as given in the Qur'an, Surah ii, 33:-
"And we said, 'O Adam! Dwell thee and they wife in the Garden, and eat ye plentifully therefrom wherever ye list; but to this tree come not nigh, lest ye become of the transgressors.'
"But Satan made them slip (azallahuma) from it, and caused their banishment from the place in which they were. And we said, 'Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the others and there shall be for you in the earth a dwelling-place, and a provision for a time.'"
Surah vii 18-24:-
"'And, O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise, and eat ye whence ye will, but to this tree approach not, lest ye become of the unjust doers."
"Then Satan whispered them to show them their nakedness, which had been hidden from them both. And he said, 'This tree hath your Lord forbidden you, only lest ye should become angels, or lest ye should become immortals."
"And be aware to them both. 'Verily I am unto you one who counselleth aright.'
"So he beguiled them by deceits and when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew together upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called to them 'Did I not forbid you this tree, and did I not say to you, "Verily, Satan is your declared enemy?"
"They said, 'O our Lord! With ourselves have we dealt unjustly; if tho forgive us not and have pity on us, we shall surely be of those who perish."
"He said, 'Get ye down, the one of you an enemy to the other; and on earth shall be your swelling, and your provision for a season."
"He said, 'On it shall ye live, and on it shall ye die, and from it shall ye be taken forth.'"
Surah xx 114-120:-
"And of old We made a covenant with Adam; but he forgot it; and we found no firmness of purpose in him.
"And when We said to the angels, 'Fall down and worship Adam,' they worshiped all save Iblis, who refused; and We said, 'O Adam! This truly is a for to thee and to thy wife. Let him not therefore drive you out of the garden, and ye become wretched."
"For to thee is it granted that thou shalt not hunger therein, neither shalt thou be naked."
"And the thou shalt not thirst therein, neither shalt thou parch with heat."
"But Satan whispered him: said he, 'O Adam! Shall I show thee the tree of Eternity, and the Kingdom that faileth not?"
"And they both ate thereof, and their nakedness appeared to them, and they began to sew of the leaves of the Garden to cover them, and Adam disobeyed his Lord and went astray."
"Afterwards his Lord chose him for himself, and was turned towards him, and guided him."
The Muslim Commentators are much perplexed as to the scene of the fall of Adam. From the text of the Qur'an it would appear that the Paradise spoken of was in heaven and not on earth, and the tradition, that when Adam was cast forth he fell on the island of Ceylon, would support this view. But al-Baizawi says some say the Garden of Eden was situated either in the country of the Philistines or in Faris, and that Adam was cast out of it and sent in the direction of Hindustan. But this view he rejects, and maintains that the Garden of Eden was in the heavens, and that the fall occurred before Adam and Eve inhabited this earth of ours. [EDEN.]
The Muhammadan commentators are silent as to the effects of Adam's fall upon the human race.
FALSE WITNESS. The Imam Abu Hanifah is of opinion that a false witness must be publicly stigmatized, but not chastised with blows; bu the Imams ash Shafi'i, Yusuf, and Muhammad are of opinion that he should be scourged and imprisoned.
In the Law of Moses, a false witness was punished with the punishment of the offence it sought to establish. Deut xx 19, "Thou shalt do unto him as he had thought to do unto his brother." [EVIDENCE.]
FAQIR . Persian darwesh. The Arabic word faqir signifies "poor"; but it is used in the sense of being in need of mercy, and poor in the sight of God, rather than in need of worldly assistance. Darwesh is a Persian word, derived from dar, "a door", ie those who beg from door to door. The terms are generally used for those who lead a religious life. Religious faqirs are divided into two great classes, the ba shar' (with the law), or those who govern their conduct according to the principles of Islam;
and the be shar' (without the law, or those who do not rule their lives according to the principles of any religious creed, although they call themselves Musulmans. The former are called salik, or travelers on the pathway (toriqah) to heaven, and the latter are with azad (free), or majzub (abstracted). The salik embrace the various religious orders who perform the zikrs, described in the article ZIKR.
The Majzub faqirs are totally absorbed in religious reverie. The Azad shave their beards, whiskers, moustachios, eye-brows, and eye-lashes, and lead lives of celibacy.
The Azad and Majzub faqirs can scarcely be said to be Muhammadans, as they do not say the regular prayers or observe the ordinances of Islam, so that a description of their various sects does not fall withing the limits of this work. The Salik faqirs are divided into very numerous orders; but their chief difference consists in their sifsilah, or chain of succession, from their great teachers, the Khalifahs Abu Bakr and 'Ali who are said to have been the founders of the religious order of faqirs.
It is impossible to become acquainted with all the rules and ceremonies of the numerous orders of faqirs; for, like those of the Freemasons and other secret societies, they are not divulged to the uninitiated.
The doctrines of the darwesh orders are those of the Sufi mystics, and their religious ceremonies consist of exercise called zikrs, or "recitals." [ZIKR, SUFIISM.]
M. D'Ohsson, in his celebrated work on the Ottoman Empire, traces the origin of the order of faqirs to the time of Muhammad himself:-
"In the first year of the Hijrah, forty-five citizens of Makkah joined themselves to as many others of al-Madinah. They took an oath of fidelity to the doctrines of their Prophet, and formed a sect or fraternity, the object of which was to establish among themselves a community of property, and to perform every day certain religious practices in a spirit of penitence and mortification. To distinguish themselves from other Muhammadans, they took the name of Sufis [SUFIISM.] This name, which later was attributed to the most zealous partizans of Islam, is the same still in use to indicate any Musulman who retires from the world to study, to lead a life of pious contemplation, and to follow the most painful exercises of an exaggerated devotion. To the name of Sufi they added also that of faqir, because their maxim was to renounce the foods of the earth, and to live in an entire abnegation of all worldly enjoyments, following thereby the words of the Prophet, al-faqru fakhri, or 'Poverty is my pride.' Following their example, Abu Bakr and 'Ali established, even during the life-time of the Prophet and under his own eyes, religious orders, over which each presided, with Zikrs or peculiar religious exercises, established by them separately, and a vow taken by each of the voluntary disciples forming them. On his decease, Abu Bakr made over his office of president to one Almanu 'l-Farisi and 'Ali to al-Hasanu 'l-Basri, and each of these charges were consecrated under the title Khalifah, or successor. The two first successors followed the example of the Khalifahs of Islam, and transmitted it to their successors, and these in turn to others the most aged and venerable of their fraternity. Some among them, led by the delirium of the imagination wandered away from the primitive rules of their society, and converted, from time to time, these fraternities into a multitude of religious orders.
"They were doubtlessly emboldened in this enterprise by the of a recluse who, in the thrity-seventh year of the Hijrah (A.D. 657) formed the first order of anchorets of the great of the greatest austerity, named Uwais al-Karani, a native of Karu, In Yamen, who one day announced that the archangel Gabriel had appeared to him in a dream, and in the name of the Eternal God, Commanded him to withdraw from the world, and to give himself up to a life of contemplation and penitence. This visionary pretended also to have received from the heavenly visitor the plan of his future conduct, and the rules of his institution. These consisted in a continual abstinence, in retirement from society, in an abandenment of the pleasures of innocent nature, and in the recital of an infinity of prayers day and night (Zikrs). Uwals even added to these practices. He went so fat as to draw out his teeth, in honor, it is said, of the Prophet, who had lost two of his own in the celebrated battle of Uhud. He required his disciples to make the same sacrifice. He pretended that all those who would be especially favored by heaven and really called to the exercises of his Order, should lose their teeth in a supernatural manner; that an angel should draw out their teeth whilst in the midst of a deep sleep; and that on a awakening they should find them by their bedside. The experiences of such a vocation were doubtless too severe to attract many proselytes to the order; it only enjoyed a certain degree of attraction for fanatics and credulously ignorant people during the first days of Islam. Since then it has remained in Yaman, where it originated, and where its partisans were always but few in number.
It was about A.H. 49 (A.D. 766), that the Shaik Alwan, a mystic renowned for his religious fervor, founded the first regular order of faqirs, now known as the Alwaniyah, with its special rules and religious exercises, although similar associations of men without strict rules had existed from the days of Abu Bakr, the first Khalifah. And although there is the formal declaration of Muhammad, "Let there be no monasticism in Islam," still the inclinations of Eastern races to a solitary and contemplative life, carried it even against the positive opposition of orthodox Islam, and now there is scarcely a maulawi or learned man of reputation in Islam who is not a member of some religious order.
Each century gave birth to new orders, named after their respective founders, but in the present day there is no means of ascertaining the actual number of these associations of mystic Muslims. M D'Ohsonn, in the work already quoted, gives a list of thirty-two orders, but it is by no means comprehensive.
Three of these orders, the Bastamiyah, the Naqshbandiyah, and the Bakhtashiyah, descend from
the order established by the first Khalifah, Abu Bakr. The forth Khalifah, 'Ali gave birth to all the others. Each order has its silsilah, or chain of succession, from one of these two great founders.
The Naqshbandiyah, who are the followers of Khwajab Pir Muhammad Naqshband, are a very numerous order. Thye usually perform the Zikr-I-Khafi, or silent devotions, described in the account of ZIKR:
The first duty of the members of this Order is to recite, daily, particular prayers, called the khatim Khawjagan; once, at least, the Istighfar (Prayer for Forgiveness); seven times the salamat; seven times the Fatihah (first chapter of the Qur'an); nine times the chapter of the Qur'an called Inshirah (Chapter xciv); lastly, the Ikhlas (Chapter cxii). To these are added the ceremonies called Zikr. [ZIKR.]
For these recitals they meet together once a week. Ordinarily, this is on Thursday, and after the fifth prayer of the day, so that it occurs after night-fall. In each city, suburb, or quarter, the members of this association, divided into different bodies, assemble at the house of their respective pir or sheikh, where, seated, they perform their
pious exercises with the most perfect gravity. The sheikh, or any other brother in his stead, chants the prayers which constitute the association and the assembly respond in chorus, "Hu (He), " or "Allah!" In some cities, the Naqshbandiyah have especial halls, consecrated wholly to this purpose, and then the sheikh only is distinguished from the other brethren by a special turban.
The Bakhtashiyah was founded by a native of Bukhara, and is celebrated as being the order which eventually gave birth to the fanatical order of Janissaries. The symbol of their order is the mystic firdle, which they put off and on seven times saying:-
1. "I tie up greediness, and unbind generosity."
The Maulawiyah are the most popular religious order of faqirs in the Turkish empire.
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
They are called by Europeans, who witness their zikrs and various religious performances at Constantinople and Cairo, the "dancing", or "whirling" darwashes. They were founded by Maulawi Jalalu 'd-din ar-Rumi, the renowned author of the Masnawi, a book much read in Persia, and, indeed, in all parts of Islam.
They have service at their takyah, or "convent", every Wednesday and Sunday at two o'clock. There are about twenty performers with high round felt caps and brown mantles. At a given signal they all fall flat on their faces, and rise and walk slowly round and round with their arms folded, bowing and turning slowly several times. They then chel
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
off their mantles and appear in long bell-shaped petticoats and jackets, and then begin to spin, revolving, dancing and turning with extraordinary velocity. [ZIRK.]
THE MAULAWI OR DANCING DARWASH
The Qadiriyah sprang from the celebrated Saidi 'Abdu 'l-Qadir, surnamed Pir-i-Dasis gir, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They practice both the Zikr-i-Jali and the Zikr-i-Khafi. Most of the Sunni Maulawis on the north-west frontier of India are members of this order. In Egypt it is most popular among fishermen.
The Chishtiyah are followers of Mu'inu 'd din Banda Nawaz, surnamed the Gisu daraf, or the "long-ringleted." His shrine is at Calburgah.
The Shi'ahs generally become faqirs of this order. They are partial to vocal music, for the founder of the order remarked that
singing was the food and support of the soul. They perform the Zikr-i-Jali, desribed in the articles on ZIKR.
The Jalaiyah were founded by Saiyid Jalalu 'd-din of Bukhara. They are met with in Central Asia. Religious mendicants are often of this order.
The Suhrwardiyah are a popular order in Afghanistan, and comprise a number of learned men. They are the followers of Shihabu 'd-din of Suhrward of al-'Iraq. These are the most noted orders of ba shar' faqirs.
The ba shar' faqirs are very numerous.
The most popular order in India is that of the Murdariyah, founded by Zinda Shah Murdar, of Syria, whose shrine is at Makanpur, in Oudh. From these have sprung the Malang faqirs, who crowd the bazaars of India. They wear their hair matted and tied in a know. The Rufa'iyah order is also a numerous on in some parts of India. They practice the most severe discipline, and mortify themselves by beating their bodies. They are known in Turkey and Egypt as the "Howling Darwashes."
Another well-known order of darwashes is the Qalandariyah, or "Wandering Darwashes", founded by Qalandar Yusuf al-Andalusi, a
A QALANDAR. (Brown)
native of Spain. He was for a time a member of the Bakhtashis; but having been dismissed from the order, he established one of his own, with the obligation of a perpetual traveling. The Qalandar faqir is a prominent character in Eastern romance.
Each order is established on different principles, and has its rules and statutes and peculiar devotions. These characteristics extend even to the garments worn by their followers. Each order has, in fact, a particular dress, and amongst the greater part of them this is chosen so as to mark a difference in that of the sheikh from that of the ordinary members. It is perceived principally in the turbans, the shape of the coat, the color, and the nature of the stuff of which the dresses are made. The sheikhs wear robes of green or white cloth; and for any of those who in winter line them with fur, use that kind called petit gris and zibaline martin. Few darwashes use
A RUFA'I IN ECSTATICS. (Brown)
cloth for their dress. Black or white felt dresses called 'aba', such as are made in some of the cities of Anatolia, are the most usual. Those
THE SHAIKH OF THE DANCING DARWASHES AT CAIRO. (From a Photograph)
who wear black felt are the Jalwattis and the Qadiris. The latter have adopted it for their boots, and muslin for their turbans
Some, such as the Maulawis and the Bakris, wear tall caps called kulahs, made also of felt, and others, such as the Rufaus, use short caps called Taqiyah, to which is added a coarse cloth. The hand dress of almost all the darwashes, is called taj, which signifies a "crown". These turbans are of different forms, either from the manner in which the muslin is folded, or by the cut of the cloth which covers the top of the head. The cloth
AN EGYPTIAN FAQIR. (From a Photograph)
is in several gores. Some have four, as the Adbamis; some six, as the Qadiris and the Sa'dis; the Gulshanis have eight; the Bakhtashis twelve; and the Jalatis eighteen.
AN EGYPTIAN FAQIR. (From a Photograph)
The darwashes carry about with them one another of the following articles; a small crooked stick of iron, which the devotee places under his arm-pit or forehead, to lean upon when he meditates or an iron or brass bar on which there is a little artificial hand wherewith to scratch his unwashed body, a bag made of lamb-skin, a kashkul or beggar's wallet.
Generally, all the darwashes allow their beards and moustaches to grow. Some of the orders - the Qadiris, Rufa'is, Khalwalis, Gulshanis, Jalwatis, and the Nuru 'd-dinis - still wear long hair in memory of the usage of the Prophet and several of his disciples. Some allow their hair to fall over their shoulders; others tie it up and put it under their turban.
Whilst private Musulmans in the habit of holding rosaries of beads as a pastime, the darwashes do the smae, only in a spirit of religion and piety. These rosaries have thirty-three, sixty-six, or ninety-nine beads, which is the number of the attributes of the Divinity [GOD.]. Some have then always in their hands, others in their girdles; and all are required to recite several times during the day, the particular prayers of their order [TASBIH.]
The individual who desires to enter an order is received in an assembly of the fraternity, presided over by the sheikh, who touches his hand and breathes in his ear three times the word, "La ilama illa 'llah ("There is no god but God'), commanding him to repeat them 101, 151, or 301 times each day. This ceremony is called the Talqin. The recipient, faithful to the orders of his chief, obligates himself to spend his time in perfect retirement, and to report to the sheikh the visions or dreams which he may have during the course of his novitiate. These dreams, besides characterizing the sanctity of his vocation, and his spiritual advancement in the order, serve likewise as so many supernatural means to direct the sheikh regarding the periods when he may again breath in the ear of the neophyte the second words of the initiation, "Ya Allah! ("O God!"), and successively all the others to the last, "Ya Qahhar!" ("O avengefull God!". The full complement of this exercise is called Chilleh, or "forty days", a period sometimes even longer, according to the dispositions more or less favorable, of the candidate. Arrived at the last grade of his novitiate, he is then supposed to have fully ended hi career, called Takmilu 's Suluk, and acquired the degree of perfection for his solemn admission into the corps to which he has devoted himself. During all his novitiate, the recipient bears the name of Murid, or "Disciple," and the sheikh who directs him in this pretended celestial career takes the title of Murshid, or "Spiritual Guide."
The founder of the Alwanis laid out the first rules of this novitiate; they were subsequently perfected by the institution of the Qadiris, and more so by the Khalwatis. The darwashes of these two last societies are distinguished in some countries by the decoration of their turban, on the top of which
are embroidered the words, "La ilaha illa 'llah" (There is no god but God).
The test of the novice among the Maulawis seem to be still more severe, and the reception of these dervishes is attended with ceremonies peculiar to their order. The aspirant is required to labor in the convent of takyah 1,001 successive days in the lowest grade on which account he is called the karra kalak (jackal). If he fails in this service only one day, or is absent one night, he is obliged to recommence his novitiate. The chief of the kitchen, or ashjibashi, one of the most notable of the darwashes, presents him to the sheikh who, seated in an angle of the sofa, receives him amid a general assembly of all the darwashes of the convent. The candidate kisses the hand of the sheikh and takes a seat before him on a mat, which covers the floor of the hall. The chief of the kitchen places his right hand on the neck, and his left hand on the forehead of the novice, whilst the sheikh takes off his cap and holds it over his head, reciting the following Persian distich, the composition of the founder of the order: -
"It is true greatness and felicity to close the heart to all human passions; the abandonment of the vanities if this world is the happy effect of the victorious strength given by the grace of our Holy Prophet."
These verses are followed by the exordium of the Takbir "Allahu akbar - God is great," after which the sheikh covers the head of the new darwash, who now rises and places himself with the Ashjibashi in the middle of the hall, where they assume the most humble posture, their hands crossed upon the breast, the left foot over the right foot, and the head inclined towards the left shoulder. The sheikh addresses these words to the head of the kitchen:-
"May the services of this darwash, thy brother, be agreeable to the throne of the Eternal, and in the eyes of our Pit (the founder of the order); may his satisfaction, his felicity, and his glory grow in this nest of the humble, in the cell of the poor; let us exclaim 'Ha!' in honor of our Maulawi."
They answer "Hu!" and the accepted novice, arising from his place, kisses the hand of the sahikh, who at this moment addresses to him some paternal exhortations on the subject of the duties of his new condition, and closes by ordering all the darwashes of the meeting to recognize and embrace their new brother.
The following is said to be the usual method of admitting a Muhammadan to the order of a la shar' faqir in India. Having first performed the legal ablutions, the murid (disciple) seats himself before the murshid (spiritual guide). The murshid then takes the murid's right hand, and requires of him a confession of sin according to the following form:-
"I ask forgiveness of the great God than Whom there is no other deity, the Eternal, the Everlasting, the Living One: I turn to Him for repentance, and beg His grace and forgiveness.
This, or a similar form of repentance, is repeated several times. The murid then repeats after the murshid:-
"I beg for the favor of God, and of the Prophet, and I take for my guide to God such a one (here naming the murshid) not to change or to separate from him. God is our witness. By the great God. There is no deity but God. Amen."
The murshid and the murid then recite the first chapter of the Qur'an, and the murid concludes the ceremony by kissing the murshid's hand.
After the initiatory rite, the murid under goes a series of instruction, including the zikr. Which he is required to repeat daily. The murid frequently visits his murshid and sometimes the murshids proceed on a circuit of visitation to their disciples. The place where these "holy men" sit down to instruct the people is ever afterwards held sacred, a small flag is hoisted on a tree, and it is fenced in. Such places are called "takyah", and are prefected and kept tree from pollution by some faqir engaged for the purpose.
Another account of the admission of a murid, or "disciple", into the order of Qadiriyah faqirs is given by Tawakkul Beg in the Journal Asiatique: -
"Having been introduced by Akhund Mulla Muhammad to Shaikh Mulla Shah, my heart, through frequent intercourse with him was filled with such a burning desire to arrive at a true knowledge of the mystical science, that I found no sleep by night, nor test by day. When the initiation commenced, I passed the whole night without sleep, and repeated innumerable times the Suratu 'l- Ikhlas: -
Say: He is God alone;
"Whosoever repeats this Surah one hundred times can accomplish all his vows. I desired that the sheikh should bestow on me his love. No sooner had I finished my task, than the heart of the sheikh became full of sympathy for me. On the following night I was conducted to his presence. During the whole of that night he concentrated his thoughts on me, whilst I gave myself up to inward meditation. Three nights passed in this way. On the fourth night the sheikh said: - 'Let Mulla Sanghim and Salih Beg, who are very susceptible to ecstatic emotions, apply their spiritual energies to Tawakkul Beg.'
"They did so, whilst I passed the whole night in meditation, with my face turned toward Makkah. As the morning drew near, a little light came into my mind, but I could not distinguish form or color. After the morning prayers, I was taken to the sheikh who bade me inform him of my mental state. I replied that I had seen a light with
my inward eye. On hearing this, the sheikh became animated and said: 'Thy heart is dark, but the time is come when I will show myself clearly to thee.' He then ordered me to sit down in front of him, and to impress his features on my mind. Then having blindfolded me, he ordered me to concentrate all my thoughts upon him. I did so and in an instant, by the spiritual help of the sheikh, my heart opened. He asked me what I saw. I said that I saw another Tawakkul Beg and another Mulia Shah. The bandage was then removed, and I saw the sheikh in front of me. Again they covered my face, and again I saw him with my inward eye. Astonished, I cried: 'O master! Whether I look with my bodily eye, or with my spiritual sight, it is always you I see.' I then saw a dazzling figure approach me. The sheikh told me to say to the apparition, 'What is your name?' In my spirit I put the question and the figure answered to my heart: 'I am 'Abdu 'l-Qadir al-Jilani, I have already aided thee, thy heart is opened.' Much affected, I vowed that in honor of the saint, I would repeat the whole Qur'an every Friday night.
"Mulla Shah then said: "The spiritual world has been shown to thee in all its beauty." I then rendered perfect obedience to the sheikh. The following day I saw the Prophet, the chief of the Companions, and legions of saints and angels. After three months I entered the cheerless region in which the figures appeared no more. During the whole of this time the sheikh continued to explain to me the mystery of the doctrine of the Unity and of the knowledge of God; but as yet he did not show me the absolute reality. It was not until a year had passed that I arrived at the true conception of unity. Then in words such as these I told the sheikh of my inspiration. 'I took upon the body as only dust and water, I regard neither my heart nor my soul, alas! That in separation from Thee (God) so much of my life has passed. Thou wert I and I knew it not.". The sheikh was delighted, and said that the truth of the union with God was now clearly revealed to me. Then addressing those who were present, he said: -
"Tawakkul Beg learnt from me the doctrine of the Unity, his inward eye has been opened, the spheres of colors and of images have been shown to him. At length, he entered the colorless region. He has now attained to the Unity; doubt and scepticism henceforth have no power over him. No one sees the Unity with the outward eye, till the inward eye gains strength and power."
Each institution imposes on its darwashes the obligation to recite certain passages at different times of the day in private, as well as in common with others. Several have also practices which are peculiar to themselves, and which consist in dances, or rather religious circular movements. In each convent there is a room consecrated to these exercises. Nothing is simpler that its construction; it contains no ornament of any nature; the middle of the room, turned towards Makkah, contains a niche or mihrab in front of which is a small carpet, mostly made of the skin of a sheep, on which the shaikh of the community reclines; over the niche the name of the founder of the order is written. In some halls this inscription is surmounted by two others - one containing the Confession of Faith, and the other the words "Bismillah," &c ("In the name of God, the most Clement and Merciful."). In others are seen on the wall to the right and the left of the niche tablets, on which are written in large letters the name of God (Allah), that of Muhammad, and those of the four first Khalifahs. At others are seen the names of al-Hasan and al-Husain, grandsons of the Prophet, and some verse of the Qur'an, or thers of a moral character.
The exercise which are followed in these halls are of various kinds, a description of which is given in the account of ZIKR.
The more zealous faqirs devote themselves to the most austere acts, and shut themselves up in their cells so as to give themselves up for whole hours to prayer and meditation; the others pass very often a whole night in pronouncing the words Hu and Allah, or rather the phrase, La ilama illa 'llah. So as to drive away sleep from their eyes, some of them stand for whole nights in very uncomfortable positions. They sit with their feet on the ground, the two hands resting upon their knees; they fasten themselves in this attitude by a band of leather passed over their neck and legs. Others tie their hair with a cord to the ceiling, and call this usage Chilleh. There are some, also, who devote themselves to an absolute retirement from the world, and to the most rigid abstinence, living only on bread and water for twelve days successively, in honor of the twelve Imams of the race of 'Ali. This retirement is called Khalwah. They pretend that the sheikh 'Amr Khalwati was the first to follow it, and that he often practiced it. They add that one say, having left his retirement, he heard a celestial voice saying, "O 'Amr Khalwait, why dost thou abandon us?" And that, faithful to this oracle, he felt himself obliged to consecrate the rest of his days to works of penitence, and even to institute an order under the name of Khalwatis, a name signifying "living in retirement." For this reason darwashes of this order consider it their duty, more that any others, to live in solitude and abstinence. The more devoted among them observe sometimes a painful fast of forty days consecutively, called by the al-arb'aun (forty). Amongst them all their object is the expiation of their sins, the sanctification of their lives, and the glorification of Islam; the prosperity of the state, and the general salvation of the Muhammadan people. The most ancient and the greatest of the orders, such as the Alwanis the Adhamis, the Qadiris, the Rufa'is, the Naqshbandis, the Khalwatis, &c, are considered as the cardinal orders; for which reason they call themselves the Usuls, or "Originals,"
They give to the others the names of the Furu' or "Branches", signifying thereby secondary ones, to designate their filiation or emanation from the first. The order of the Naqashbandis and Khalwatis hold, however, the first rank in the temporal line; the one on account of the conformity of its statutes to the principles of the ten first confraternities, and to the luster which causes the grandees and principle citizens of the empire to incorporate themselves in it; and the other, because of its being the source of the mother society which gave birth to many others. In the spiritual line, the order of the Qadiris, Maulawis, Bakhtashis, Rufa'is, and the Sa'dis, are the most distinguished, especially the three first, on account of the eminent sanctity of their founders, of the multitude of the miracles attributed to them, and of the superabundance of the merit which is deemed especially attached to them.
Although all of them are considered as mendicant orders, no darwash is allowed to beg, especially in public. The only exception is among the Bakhtashis, who deem it meritorious to live by alms; and many of these visit not only private houses, but even the streets, public squares, bureaux, and public houses, for the purpose of recommending themselves to the charity of their brethren.
They only express their requests by the words "Shayid Ullah," a corruption from "Shayun li-'llah," which means, "something for the love of God." Many of these make it a rule to live only by the labor of their hands, in imitation of Haji Baktash, their founder; and like him, they make spoons, ladles, graters, and other utensils, of wood or marble. It is these, also, who fashion the pieces of marbles, white or veined, which are used as collars or buckles for the belts of all of the darwashes of their order, and the kashkuls, or shell cups, in which they are obliged to ask alms.
Although in no wise bound by any oaths, all being free to change their community, and even to return to the world, and there to adopt any occupation which may please their fancy, it is rarely that anyone makes use of this liberty. Each one regards it as a sacred duty to end his days in the dress of his order. To this spirit of poverty and perseverance, in which they are so exemplary, must be added that of perfect submission to their superior. This latter is elevated by the deep humility which accompanies all their conduct, not only in the interior of the cloisters, but even in private life. One never meets them anywhere but with head bent and the most respectful countenance. They never salute anyone, particularly the Maulawis, and the Backhtashis, except by the exclamation, "Ya Hu!". The words Ai bi-'llah, "thanks to God," frequently are used in their conversation; and the more devout or enthusiastic speak only of dreams, visions, celestial spirits, super-natural objects, &c.
They are seldom exposed to the trouble and vexations of ambition, because the most ancient darwashes are those who may aspire to the grade of sheikh or superior of the convent. The sheikhs are named by their respective generals called the Ratsu 'l- Masha'ikh (chief of sheikhs). Those of the Mualawis have the distinctive title of Cheleby Efendi. All reside in the same cities which contain the ashes of the founders of their orders called by the name of Astaneb signifying "the court". They are subordinate to the Mufti of the capital, who exercises absolute jurisdiction over them. In the Turkish Empire the Shaikhu 'l-Islam has the right of removing all the generals of the various orders, even those of the Qadaris, the Maulawis, and of the Bakhtashis, although the dignity be hereditary in their family, on account of their all three being sprung from the blood of the same founders of their orders. The Mufti has likewise the right to confirm the shaikhs who may be nominated by any of the generals of the orders.
(See The Dervishes on Oriental Spiritualism, by John P. Brown; Malcolm's Persia; Lane's Modern Egyptians; D'Ohsson's Ottoman Empire; Ubicini's Letters on Turkey; Herklott's Musalman's; Tazkiratu 'l-Auliy, by Shaikh Faridu 'd-Din al-'Attar.)
FARA' The first born of either camels, sheep, or goats, which the Arab pagans used to offer to idols. This was allowed by the Prophet at the commencement of his mission, but afterwards abolished. (Mishkat, book iv c 50.)
FARA'IZ pl. of Farizah. "Inheritances". A term used for the law of inheritance, or 'Ilmu 'l-Fara'iz. Farizah means literally an ordination of God, and this branch of Muslim law is so called because it is established fully in the Quran, Surah iv. [INHERITANCE.]
FARAQ lit. "Separation". Faraq-I Awwal is a term used by Sufi mystics to express that state of mind in which the soul is drawn away from a contemplation of God by a contemplation of his creation; and furaq-I-sani (the second separation) is when the soul is constantly contemplating the stability of the creation with the eternity of the Creator. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dictionary of Sufi Terms.)
"And call to mind when Jesus, son of Mary, said: - 'O children of Israel! Verily I am an Apostle of God unto you, attesting the Taurat revealed before me, and giving good tidings of a Prophet that shall come after whose name is Ahmad."
Ahmad is another derivative of the root to which Muhammad belongs, signifying, like it,
"the Praised". It is not improbable that in some imperfect copies of St. John xvi 7, may, have been rendered , which in some early Arabic translation of the Gospel may have been translated Ahmad. In the Maja'u 'l-Bihar, a work written three hundred years ago, the word faraqlit is said to mean a distinguisher between truth and error. The word also occurs several times in the well-known Shia'ah work, the Hayatu 'l-Qulub (vide. Merrick's translation, page 86). The author syas, "It is well known that his (the Prophet's) name in the Taurat is Muadmund, in the Gospels (Injil) Tabtab, and in the Psalms (Zabur) Farakleet." And again (p. 308), "God said to Jesus, son of my handmaid....verily, I will send the chosen of prophets, Ahmad, whom I have selected of all my creatures even Faraleet, my friend and servant." [JESUS.]
FARWAH An Arab of the Banu Juzam and Governor of 'Amman, who is represented by tradition (upon imperfect evidence) as one of the early martyrs of Islam. Having been converted to Islam, the Roman authorities crucified him (Muir's Life of Mahomet, vol. ii, p 103.)
FARZ That which is obligatory. A term used for those rules and ordinances of religion which are said to have been established and enjoined by God Himself, as distinguished from those which are established upon the precept or practice pf the Prophet, and which are called sunnah.
They are generally held to be five in number: (1) To return a salutation; (2) To visit the sick and inquire after their welfare; (3) To follow a bier on foot to the grave; (4) To accept an invitation to dinner; (5) Replying to a sneeze. [SNEEZING.]
They are also said to be six or seven in number, when there are added one or two of the following: (1) To give advice when asked for it; (2) To help a Muslim to verify his oath; (3) To assist a person in distress. 'Abdu 'l-Haqq says this last injunction applies to all cases, whether that of a Muslim or an infidel. (Mishkat, book v c I part 1).
FASIQ . A term used in Muhammadan law for a reprobate person who neglects decorum in his dress and behavior. The acceptance of such a person's evidence is not admissible. He is not regarded as a Muslim citizen, although he may profess Islam.
FASTING. Arabic Saum Persian Rozah . Fasting was highly commended by Muhammad as an atonement for sin. The following are the fasts founded upon the example of the Prophet and observed by devout Muslims:-
(1) The thirty-days of the month of Ramazan. This month's fast is regarded as a divine institution, being enjoined in the Qur'an (Surah ii, 180) and is therefore compulsory [RAMAZAN.]
(2) The day Ashura. The tenth day of the month of Muharram. This is a voluntary fast, but it is pretty generally observed by all Muslims, for Abu Qatadah relates that the Prophet said he hoped that the fast of 'Ashura would cover the sins of the coming year. (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 1) [ASHURA.]
(3) The six days following the 'Idu 'l-Fitr. Abu Aiyub relates that the Prophet said, "The person who fasts the month of Ramazan and follows it up with six days of the month of Shawwal, will obtain the rewards of a continued fast." (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 1)
(4) The Monday and Thursday of every week are recommended as fast days, as distinguished from the Christian fast of Wednesday. Abu Hurairah relates that the Prophet said, "The actions of God's servants are represented at the throne of God on Mondays and Thursdays." (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 2). These days are only observed by strictly religious Muslims.
(5) The month of Sha'ban. 'Ayishah relates that "the Prophet used sometimes to fast part of this month and sometimes the whole." (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 1). It is seldom observed in the present day.
(6) The 13th , 14th, and 15th of each month. These days are termed al-ayyamu '-biz, i.e. the bright days and were observed by Muhammad himself as fasts. (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 2). These are generally observed by devout Muslims.
(7) Fasting alternative days, which Muhaamad said was the fast observed by David, King of Israel. (Mishkat, book vii ch vii pt 1).
In the Traditions, fasting is commended by Muhammad in the following words:-
"Every good act that a man does shall receive from ten to seven hundred rewards, but the rewards of fasting are beyond bounds, for fasting is for God alone, and He will give its rewards."
"He who fasts abandons the cravings of his appetites for God's sake."
"There are two pleasures in fasting, one when the person who fasts breaks it, and the other in the next world when he meets his
Lord. The very smell of the of the mouth of a keeper of a fast is more agreeable to God than the smell of musk."
"Fasting is a shield."
When any of you fast, utter no bad words, nor raise your voice in strife. If anyone abuse one who is fasting, let him refrain from replying: let his say that he is keeping a fast." (Mishcat, book vii ch I pt 1.)
AL-FATH "The Victory". The title of the XLVIIIth Surah of the Qur'an, in the first verse of which the word occurs, "Verily We (God) have given thee an obvious victory, that God may pardon thee thy former and later sin."
Professor Palmer says, "Some of the commentators take this to mean sins committed by Muhammad before his call and after it. Others refer to the word to the liaison with the Coptic handmaiden Mary, and to his marriage with Zainab, the wife of his adopted son Zaid." None of the commentators we have consulted, including al-Baizawi, al-Jalalan, al-Kamalan, and Husain, give the last interpretation. They all say it refers to his sins before and after his call to the Apostleship.
FATHER. In the Sunni law of inheritance, a father is a sharer in the property of his son or son's son, taking one-sixth, but if his son die unmarried, and without issue, the father is the residuary and takes the whole.
According to the law of qisas or retaliation, if a father take the life of his son, he is not to be slain, for the Prophet has said, "Retaliation must not be executed upon the parent for his offspring"; and Abu Hanifah adds, "because as the parent is the efficient cause of his child's existence, it is not proper that the child should require or be the occasion of his father's death"; whence it is that a son is forbidden to shoot his father, when in the army of the enemy, or to throw a stone at him, if suffering lapidation for adultery.
In the law evidence, the testimony of a father for or against his child is not admitted in a court of law.
AL-FATIHAH Lit. "The opening one." The first chapter of the Qur'an, called also the Suratu 'l-Hamd, or the Chapter of Praise." It is held in great veneration by Muhammadans, and is used by them very much as the Paternester is recited by Roman Catholics. It is repeated over sick persons as a means of healing and also recited as an intercession for the souls of the departed, and occurs in each rak'ah of the daily prayer. Muhammad is related to have said it was the greatest Surah in the Qur'an and to have called it the Qur'anu 'l-Azim, or the "exalted reading." It is also entitle the Sab'u 'l-Masam, or the "seven recitals", as it contains seven verses; also Ummu 'l-Qur'an, the "Mother of the Qur'an." According to a saying of the Prophet, the fatihah was revealed twice, once at Makkah and once at al-Madinah. The Amin always said at the conclusion of this prayer.
The following transliteration of the Arabic of the Fatihah into English characters may give some idea of the rhythm in which the Qur'an is written: -
"Al-hamdu li-'llahi Rabbi 'l-alamin.
Which is translated by Rodwell in his English Qur'an as follows: -
"Praise be to God, Lord of all the worlds!
FATIMAH A daughter of Muhammad, by his first wife Khadijah. She married 'Ali the cousin of Muhammad, by she had three sons, al-Hasan, al-Husain, and al-Muhsin; the latter died in infancy. From the two former are descended the posterity of the Prophet known as Saiyids. Fatimah died six months after her father. She is spoken of by the Prophet as one of the four perfect women, and is called al-Batul, or "the Virgin", by which is meant one who had renounced the World, also Fatimatu 'z-zubra, or "the beautiful Fatima."
There are three women of the name of Fatimah mentioned in the Traditions: (1) Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad; (2) The mother of 'Ali; (3) The daughter of Hamzah, the uncle of Muhammad.
AL-FATIMIYAH "The Fatimides". A dynasty of Khalifahs who reigned over Egypt and North Africa from A.D. 908 to A.D. 1171. They obtained the name from the pretensions of the founder of their dynasty Abu Muhammad 'Ubaidu'llah, who asserted that he was a Saivid, and descended from Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet and 'Ali. His opponents declared he was the grandson of a Jew of the Magian religion.
There were in all fourteen Khalifahs of this dynasty:
1. 'Ubaidu'llah, the first Fatimide Khalifah, was born A.D. 882. Having incurred the displeasure of al-Muktafi, the reigning Abasside Khalifah, he was obliged to wander through various parts of Africe, till through fortunate circumstances he was raised in A.D. 910 from a dungeon in Segelmessa to sovereign power. He assumed the title fo al-Mahdi or "the Director of the Faithful."
[MAHDI.] He subdued the Amirs in the north of Africa, who had become independent of the Abassides, and established his authority from the Atlantic to the borders of Egypt. He founded Mahadi on the site of the ancient Aphrodisium, a town on the coast of Africa, about a hundred miles wouth of Tunis, and made it his capital. He became the author of a great schism among the Muhammadans by disowning the authority of the Abassides, and assuming the titles of Khalifah and Amiru 'l-Mu'minim, "Price of the Faithful." His fleets ravaged the coasts of Italy and Sicily, and his armies frequently invaded Egypt, but without any permanent success.
(2) Al-Qa'im succeeded his father in A.D. 933. During his reign, an imposter, Abu Yazid, originally an Ethiopian slave, advanced certain peculiar doctrines in religion, which he was enabled to propagate over the whole of the north of Africa, and was so successful in his military expeditions as to deprive al-Qa'im of all his dominions, and confine him to his capital, Mahadi, which he was besieging when al-Qa'im died.
(3) Al-Mansur succeeded his father in A.D. 946, when the kingdom was in a state of the greatest confusion. By his valour and prudence he regained the greater part of the dominions of his grandfather 'Ubaidu'llah, defeated the usurper Abu Yazid, and laid the foundation of that power which enabled his son al-Mu'izz to conquer Egypt.
(4) Al-Mu'izz (A.D. 955) was the most powerful of the Fatimide Khalifahs. He was successful in a naval war with Spain, and took the island of Sicily; but his most celebrated conquest was that of Egypt, which was subdued in A.D. 972. Two years afterwards he removed his court to Egypt, and founded Cairo. The name of the Abbaside Khalifah was omitted in the Friday prayers, and his own substituted in its place; from which time the great schism of the Fatimide and Abasside Khalifahs is more frequently dated than from the assumption of the title by 'Ubaidu'llah. The armies of al-Mu'izz conquered the whole of Palestine and Syria as far as Damascus.
(5) Al-'Aziz (A.D. 978). The dominions recently acquired by al-Mu'izz were secured to the Fatimide Khalifahs by the wise government of his son, al-'Aziz, who took several towns in Syria. He married a Christian woman, whose brothers he made patriarchs of Alexandria and Jerusalem.
(6) Al-Hakim was only eleven years of age when he succeeded his father in A.D. 996. He is distinguished even among Oriental despots by his cruelty and folly. His tyranny caused frequent insurrections in Cairo. He persecuted the Jews and the Christians, and burnt their places of worship. By his order the Church of the Resurrection at Jerusalem was destroyed (A.D. 1009). His persecutions of the Christians induced them to appeal to their brethren in the West, and was one of the causes that led to the crusades. He carried his folly so far as to seek to become the founder of a new religion, and to assert that he was the express image of God. He was assassinated in A.D. 1021, and was succeeded by his son.
(7) Az-Zahir (A.D. 1021) was not so cruel as his father, but was addicted to pleasure, and resigned all the cares of government to his Vizirs. In his reign the power of the Fatimide Khalifahs began to decline. They possessed nothing but the external show of royalty; secluded in the harem, they were the slaves of their viziers whom they could not remove, and dared not disobey. In addition to the evils of misgovernment, Egypt was afflicted in the reign of az-Zahir with one of the most dreadful famines that ever visited the country.
(8) Al-Mustansir (A.D. 1037) was only nine years old when he succeeded his father. The Turks invaded Syria and Palestine in his reign, took Damascus and Jerusalem (1076), where the princes of the house of Ortok, a Turkish family, established an independent kingdom. They advanced to the Nile with the intention of conquering Egypt, but were repulsed.
(9) Al-Musta'li (A.D. 1094), the second son of al-Mustansir, was seated on the throne by the all-powerful Vizir Afzal, in whose hands the entire power rested during the whole of al-Musta'li's reign. The invasion of Asia Minor by the Crusaders in 1097 appeared to Afzal a favorable opportunity for the recovery of Jerusalem. Refusing to assist the Turks against the Crusaders, he marched against Jerusalem, took it (1098), and deprived the Ortok princes of the sovereignty which he had exercised for twenty years. His possession of Jerusalem was, however, of very short duration, for it was taken in the following year (1099) by the Crusaders. Anxious to recover his loss, he led an immense army in the same year against Jerusalem, but was entirely defeated by the Crusaders near Ascalon.
(10) Al-Amir (A.D. 1101).
(11) Al-Hafiz (A.D. 1129).
(12) Az-Zafir (A.D. 1149).
(13) Al-Fa'iz (A.D. 1154).
During these reigns the power of the Fatimides rapidly decayed.
(14) Al-'Azid (A.D. 1160) was the last Khalifah of the Fatimide dynasty. At the commencement of his reign Egypt was divided into two factions, the respective chiefs of which, Dargham and Shawir, disputed for the dignity of the Vizir. Shawir implored the assistance of Nuru 'd-din, who sent an army into Egypt under the command of Shirkuh, by means of which his rival was crushed. But becoming jealous of Nuru 'd-din's power in Egypt, he solicited the aid of into Egypt and expelled Shirkuh from the country. Nuru 'd-din soon sent another army into Egypt under the same commander, who was accompanied by his nephew, the celebrated Salahu 'd-din (Saladin). Shirkuh was again unsuccessful, and was obliged to retreat. The ambition of Amauri afforded
shortly afterwards a more favorable opportunity for the reduction of Egypt. Amauri, after driving Shirkuh out of the country, mediated the design of reducing it to his own authority. Shawir, alarmed at the success of Amauri, entreated the assistence of Nuru d-din, who sent Shirkuh for the third time at the head of a numerous army. He repulsed the Christians, and afterwards put the treacherous Vizir to death. Shirkuh succeeded to his dignity, but dying shortly after, Saladin obtained the post of Vizir. As Nuru 'd-din was attached to the interests of the Abassides, he gave oders for the proclamation of al-Mustahdi, the Abasside khalifah, and for depriving the Fatimides of the Khalifate. 'Azid, who was then on a sick-bed, died a few days afterwards. [KHALIFAH.]
FATRAH Lit. "Langour," or "Intermission". (1) The interval between the supposed revelation of the xcvith Surah of the Qur'an and the lxxivth and xciiird Surahs. It is during this period that the powers of inspiration of the Prophet are said to have been suspended, and it was then that he contemplated suicide by intending to cast himself from Mount Hira. The accounts of this interval are confused and contradictory, and various are the periods assigned to it, viz. from seven months to seven years.
(2) The term is also used for the time which elapses between the disappearance of a prophet and the appearance of another. (Ghiyasu 'l-Lughah in loco)
(3) A term used by Sufi mystics for a declension in spiritual life. ('Abdu 'r-Razzaq's Dict. of Sufi Terms)
One of the ninety-nine names or attributes of God. It occurs in the Qur'an, Surah xxiv., "For He is the opener who knows."
FATWA . A religious or judicial sentence pronounced by the Khalifah or by a Mufti, or Qazi. It is generally written. The following is a fatwa delivered by the present Mufti of the Hanafi sect at Makkah in reply to the question as to whether India is a Daru 'l-Islam. Fatwas are generally written in a similar form to this, but in Arabic:-
"All praises are due to the Almighty, who is Lord of all the creation!
This is the Fatwa passed by one who hopes for the secret favor of
the Almighty, who praises God, and prays for blessings and peace on his
FAUJDAR An officer of the Moghul Governemnt who was invested with the charge of the police, and jurisdiction in all criminal matters. A criminal judge. Faujdari is a term now used in British for a criminal suit as opposed to diwani, or civil.
FAZL Lit. "That which remains over and above; redundant." A word used in the Qur'an for God's grace or kindness. Surah ii 244: "God is Lord of grace to men, but most men give no thanks." The Christian idea of divine grace, as in the New Testament, seems to be better expressed by fayz-I-aquas.
FAZULI Lit. "That which is in excess." A term used in Muhammadan law for anything unauthorized, e.g. bai'-I-lazuli, is an unauthorized sale. Nikah-I-fazula is an unauthorized marriage, when the contracts are made by an unauthorized agent.
FEAST DAYS Arabic 'id ; dual 'idan; plural a'yad. The two great festivals of the Muhammadans are, the 'Idu 'l-Fitr, and the 'Idu 'l-Azha. The other festivals which are celebrated as days of rejoicing are, the Shab-I-Barat, or the fifteenth day of Sha'ban; the Nau-Roz, or New Year's day; and Akhir-I-Chahar Shamba, or the last Wednesday of the month of Safar; the Laylatu 'r-Ragha'ib, or the first Friday in the month of the month Rajab; the Maulud, or the birthday of Muhammad.
Surah xvi 60: "For when the birth of a daughter is announced to any one of them, dark shadows settle on his face, and he is sad. He hideth himself from the people because of the bad news; shall he keep it with disgrace or bury it in the dust? Are not their judgements wrong."
for sin, or for the duties unperformed. The word occurs three times in the Qur'an: -
Surah ii 180: "For those who are able to keep it (the fast) and yet break it, there shall be as an expiatos the maintenance of a poor man."
Surah ii 192: "Perform the pilgrimage and the visitation of the holy places...But whoever among you is sick, or hath an ailment of the head, must expiate by fasting, or alms, or a sacrifice."
Surah lvii 14: "On that day (the Day of Judgement) so expiation shall be taken from you (i.e. the hypocrites) or from those who do not believe; your abode is the fire.
The other word used in the Qur'an for the same idea is kaffarah. [KAFFARAH, EXPIATION.]
FIG. Arabic at-Tin The title of the xcvth Surah of the Qur'an, so called because Muhammad makes the Almighty swear by that fruit in the first verse. Al-Baizawi says that God swears by the figs because of their great use. They are most excellent because they can be eaten at once, having no stones, they are easy of digestion, and help to carry off the phlegm, the gravel in the kidneys or bladder, and remove obstructions of the liver, and also cure piles and gout. (Tafsiru 'l-Baizawi, in loco)
FINES. Arabic Diyah . A term which, in its strictest sense, means a sum exacted for any offence upon which the person, in consideration for the claim of qisas, or retaliation, not being insisted upon. (This does not apply to willful murder.) A full and complete line is that levied upon a person for manslaughter, which consists of either one hundred female camels or ten thousand dirhams (silver), or one thousand dinar (gold).
The fine for slaying a woman is half that for slaying a man, "because the rank of a woman is lower than that of a man, so also her faculties and uses!" The fine for slaying a zimmi (be he a Jew, Christian, or idolater) is the same as for slaying a Muslim.
A complete fine is also levied for the destruction of a nose, or a tongue, or a virile member, and also, if a person tear out the beard, or the hair of the scalp, or the whiskers, or both eyebrows, so that they never grow again "because the beauty of the countenance is thereby effaced."
A half fine is due for merely destroyed the use of a limb, but if a person strike another in any way so as to completely destroy the beauty of his person, a complete fine must be paid. Wounds on the face viz from the crown of the head to the chin, are specially treated and are termed shijaj. Of shijaj, or "face wounds," there are ten: (1) harifah, or such as draw no blood - a mere scratch; (2) dámiyah, a scratch which draws blood without causing it to flow; (3) damiyah, a scratch which causes blood to flow; (4) bazi'ah, a cut through the skin; (5) mutalahimah, a cut to the flesh; (6) simhuq, a wound reaching into the pericranium; (7) muzihah, a wound which lays bare the bone; (8) hashimah, a fracture of the skull; (9) muhakilah, a fracture which causes the removal of a part of the skull; (10) ammah, a wound extending to the brain.
FIQH The dogmatic theology of the Muslims. Works on Muhammadan law, whether civil or religious. The books most read by the Sunnis are the Hidayah, written by a learned man named 'Ali ibn Abi Bakr, A.H. 593, part of which has been translated by the late Colonel, Charles Hamilton; the Darru 'l-Mukhtar, by 'Ala'o 'd-din, A.H. 1088; the Sharhu 'l-Wiqayah, by Ubaidu 'llah ibn Masud, A.H. 745; the Raddu 'l Muhtat by Saiyid Muhammad Amin ibn Abidi 'd-din, and the Fatawa 'Alamgiri. Amongst the Imamiyah School, or Shi'ahs, the principal works are Kitabu 'sh-Sharai', by Abu 'l-Hasan 'Ali (A.H. 326); the Muqni' f i'i Fiqh by Abu Ja'far (A.H. 360); the Shara i'u 'l-Islam, by Shaikh Najmu d-din (A.H. 679); and the Jami'u 'l-Abbasi, by Baha'u d-din (A.H. 1031).
FIRE. Arabic nar (1) The term an nar, "the fire", is generally used in the Qur'an and the Traditions for "hell." (2) In the Qur'an (Surah xxxvii 29) the power of God is declared as being able to give fire out of a given tree." On which al Bazizawi says :the usual way of getting fire is by rubbing two pieces of wood together one of which is markh and the other afar, and they produce fire, although both the sticks are green. (3) The burning to death of human beings is condemned by Muhammad, who said 'Let no one punish with the punishment of fire but God'.
FIRST BORN Although the Arabian legislator followed the Mosaic law in so many of his legal enactments, he has carefully avoided any legislation as to the rights of primogeniture although it formed such a marked feature in the Pentateuch, in which the first born of man and beast were devoted to God and were redeemed with a price. In the Muslim law of inheritance all the sons share equally, which in the Mosaic law the eldest son received a double portion of the father's inheritance. (Deut. xxi 17)
In cases of chiefship, or monarchy the eldest son usually inherits, but it rests entirely upon his fitness for the position. Very often the eldest son is passed by and a younger brother selected as ruler. This was also the case amongst the Jews when Solomon succeeded his father in the kingdom (1 Kings I 30, ii 22)
FISH Arabic samak (1) Fish which, dying of themselves float upon the surface of the water are abominated, according to Abu Hanifah. Ash Shaf'i and Malik say they are indifferent. Abu Hanifah teaches that fish which are killed by accident are lawful but such as die of themselves without any accident are unlawful. There are, however, different opinions regarding those which die of extreme heat or cold.
A term specially used for those wars and commotions which shall precede the Resurrection. A chapter is devoted to the subject in all the books of traditions (See Sahihu 'l Bukhari, p 1045; Sahihu Muslim p 388)
Muhammad is related to have said "There will be Khalifahs after me that will not go the straight road in which I have gone, nor will follow my example, but in those times there will be the hearts of devils in the bodies of men." Huzaifah then said to him, "O Prophet, what shall I do if I live to see those days? And the Prophet said, "Obey him who has the rule over you, even though he flog your back and take your money."
Saliyah, in a tradition recorded in the at-Tirmizi and Abu Daud said that Muhammad said that the succession would last for thirty years, and that the "four rightly directed Khalifahs", reigned exactly that time; Abu Bakr, two years; 'Umar, ten; 'Uthman, twelve; and Ali, six.
'Ayishah relates that the Prophet said: There are ten qualities of the prophets - clipping the mustachios so that they do not enter the mouth, not cutting or shaving the beard. Cleansing the teeth (i.e. miswak), cleansing the nostrils with water at the usual ablutions, cutting the nails, cleaning the finger joints, pulling out the hairs under the arm pits, shaving the hair of the privates, washing with water after passing urine, and cleansing the mouth with water at the time of ablution." (See Sahih Muslim.)
FIVE FOUNDATIONS OF ISLAM (1) Shahadah, or bearing witness that there is no deity but God; (2) Salat, or the observance of the five stated periods or prayer; (3) Zakat, giving the legal aims once a year; (4) Saum, fasting during the whole of the month of Ramazan; (5) Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mekkah once in a life-time. They are also called the five foundations of practice, as distinguished from the six foundations of faith. [ISLAM IMAN.]
FIVE KEYS OF SECRET KNOWLEDGE, which are with God alone are said to be found in the last verse of Surah Luqman (xxxist, 34) of the Qur'an. "God! With Him is (1) the Knowledge of the Hour; (2) and He sendeth down rain; (3) and He knoweth what is in the wombs; (4) but no soul knoweth what shall be on the morrow; (5) neither knoweth any soul in what land he shall die. Verily God is knowing and is informed of all."
(bating) senses. The former being those five faculties known amongst the European writes as seeing (basirah), hearing (sam'ah), smelling (shammah), taste (za'iqah), touch (lamisah). The latter: common sense (hiss-I-mushtarok), the imaginative faculty (quat-I-khail), the thinking faculty (quat-I-mutasarrifah), the instinctive faculty (quat-I-wahimah), the retentive faculty (quat-I-hafizah).
FOOD Arabic ta'am pl. ataimah. The injunctions contained in the Qur'an (Surah ii, 167) respecting food are as follows: "O ye who believe! Eat of the food things with which we have supplied you, and give God thanks if ye are His worshipers. Only that which dieth of itself, and blood, and swine's flesh, and that over which any other name than that of God hath been invoked, hath God forbidden you. But he who shall partake of them by constraint, without desire, nor of necessity, then no sin shall be upon him. Verily God is forgiving and merciful." Surah v 92: "O Believers! Wine (khamr) and games of chance, and statues, and divining arrows are only an abomination of Satan's work! Avoid them that ye may prosper."
No animal, except fish and locusts, is lawful food unless it be slaughtered according to the Muhammadan law, namely, by drawing the knife across the throat and cutting the wind-pipe, the carotid arteries, and the gullet, repeating at the same time the words "Bi'sm'illahi, Allahu akbar", i.e. "In the name of God, God is great." A clean animal, so slaughtered, becomes lawful food for Muslims, whether slaughtered by Jews, Christians, or Muhammadans, but animals slaughtered by either an idolater or an apostate from Islam, is not lawful.
Zabh, or the slaying of animals, is of two kinds. Ikhtiyari, or "of choice', and Iztirari, or of necessity. The former being the slaughtering of animals in the name of God, the latter being the slaughter effected by a wound, as in shooting birds or animals, in which case the words "Bi'sm'illahi, Allahu akbar" must be said at the time of the discharge of the arrow from the bow or the shot from the gun.
According to the Hidayah, all quadrupeds that seize their prey with their teeth, and all birds which seize it with their talons are unlawful, because the Prophet has prohibited mankind from eating them. Hyenas, foxes, elephants, weasels, pelicans, kites, carrion crows, ravens, crocodiles, otters, asses, mules, wasps, and in general all insects are forbidden. But there is some doubt as to the lawfulness of horse's flesh. Fishes dying of themselves are also forbidden.
A Muslim can have no religious scruples to eat with a Christian, as long as the food eaten is of a lawful kind. Saiyid Ahmad Khan Bahadar C.S.I. has written a treatise proving that Muhammadans can eat with the Ahl-I-Kitab, namely Jews or Christians. The Muhammadans of India, whilst they will eat food cooked by idolatrous Hindus, refuse to touch that cooked either by Native or European Christians; and they often refuse to allow Christians to draw water from the public wells, although Hindus are permitted to do so. Such objections arise solely form jealousy of race, and an unfriendly feeling towards the ruling power. In Afghanistan and Persia, no such objections exist; and no doubt much evil has been caused by Government allowing Hindustani Muslims to create a religious custom which has no foundation whatever except that of national hatred to their English conquerors. [EATING.]
FORBIDDEN FRUIT, The. Mentioned in the Qu'ran Surah ii 83: "And we (God) said, 'O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife in Paradise and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree (shajarah)."
Concerning this tree, the Commentators have various opinions. Husain says some say it was a fig tree, or a vine, but most people think it was a grain of wheat (hintah) from a wheat stalk. [ADAM, FALL.]
FORGIVENESS OF INJURIES Enjoined in the Qur'an in the following words (Surah xlii 38): "Let the recompense of evil be only a like evil - but he who forgiveth and maketh peace, shall find his reward for it from God; verily He loveth not those who act unjustly. And there shall be no way open (i.e. no blame) against those who, after being wronged, avenge themselves ..... Whoso beareth wrongs and forgiveth - this is a bounden duty."
To establish it by proof, four witnesses are required, and if any person bring an accusation against a woman of chaste reputation and fail to establish it, he must be punished with eighty stripes. [QAZF.]
When a person for conscience sake confesses the sin of fornication, the confession must be repeated four times at four different appearances before a qazi, and the person confessing must be very exact and particular as to the circumstances, so that there can be no mistake. A self-accused person may also retract the confession at any period before, or during, the infliction of the punishment, and the retraction must be accepted.
scourging to be inflicted upon a man standing and upon a woman sitting; and the women is not to be stripped. It should be done with moderation, with a strap or whip which has no knots upon it, and the stripes should be given not all upon the same part of the body. [DIRRAH.]
In some countries banishment is added to the punishment of scourging for fornication, especially if the sin is often repeated, so as to constitute common prostitution.
The law is founded upon the following verse in the Qur'an, Surah xxiv. 2-5:-
"The whore and the whoremonger - scourge each of them with an hundred stripes; and let not compassion keep you from carrying out the sentence of God, if ye believe in God and the last day; And let some of the faithful witness their chastisement."
"The whoremonger shall not marry other than a whore or an idolatress; and the whore shall not marry other than a whoremonger or an idolater. Such alliances are forbidden to the faithful."
"They who defame virtuous women, and bring not four witnesses, scourge them with fourscore stripes, and receive ye not their testimony for ever, for these are perverse persons -
Save those who afterwards repent and live virtuously; for truly God is Lenient, Merciful!"
The Muhammadan law differs from Jewish law with regard to fornication: see Exodus xxii. 16, 17:- "If a man entice a maid that is not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely endow her to be his wife. If her father utterly refuse to give her unto him, he shall pay money according to the dowry of virgins Deut. xxii. 25-29:- "If a damsel that is a virgin be betrothed unto a husband, and a man find her in the city and lie with her, then ye shall bring them out unto the gate of the city, and ye shall stone them with stones that they die; the damsel because she cried not, being in the city, and the man because he hath humbled his neighbor's wife; so shalt thou put away evil from among you. But if a man find a betrothed damsel in the field, and the man force her to lie with him, then the man only that lay with her shall die. But unto the damsel shalt thou do nothing; there is in the damsel no sin worthy of death....If a man find a damsel that is a virgin, which is not betrothed and lay hold on her, and lie with her, and they be found, then the man that lay with her shall give unto the damsel's father fifty shekels of silver, and she shall be his wife; because he hath humbled her, he may not put her away all his days."
FORTUNE-TELLING Arabic kahanah . Mu'awiyab ibn Hakam relates that he asked the Prophet if it were right to consult fortune-tellers about future events, and he replied, "Since you have embraced Islam, you must not consult them. [MAGIC.]
FOSTERAGE Arabic raza'ah, riza'ah . According to Abu Hanifah, the period of fosterage is thirty months but the two disciples, Yusuf and Muhammad, hold it to be two years, whilst Zufar maintains that it is three years. Fosterage with respect to the prohibitions attached to it is of two kinds: first, where a woman takes a strange child to nurse, by which all future matrimonial connection between that child and the woman, or her relations within the prohibited decrees, is rendered illegal; secondly, where a woman nurses two children, male and female, upon the same milk, which prohibits any future matrimonial connection between them. For further particulars on this subject, see Hamilton's Hidayah, vol I, page 187.
FOUNDLING Arabic taqit . Lit. "That which is picked up." The person who finds the child is called the multaqit. The taking up of a foundling is said to be a laudable and generous act, and where the finder sees that the child's life is in peril, it is an incumbent religious duty. (Hidayah, vol ii p 252)
The maintenance of a foundling is defrayed from the public treasury, but the finder is not to demand anything for his trouble and expense, but after the finding of the child has been reported to the magistrate, the child is legally place under the care of the multaqit, and supported by the state. A founding is declared to be free and not a slave, and unless he be found on the land or property of a Jew or Christian, he is declared a Muslim. But if the child be found on the property of a Jew or Christian, he will be declared a Jew or Christian as the case may be. The mulaqit cannot contract the foundling in marriage without the sanction of the magistrate, but he may send him to school and in every respect see to his education and training without consulting the magistrate.
FRIDAY Arabic Jum'ah "The Day of Assembly." The Muhammadan Sabbath, on which they assemble in the Jami Masjid, or chief mosque, and recite two rik'ahs or prayers and listen to the oration, or khutbah at the time of mid-day prayer. Muhammad claims in the Traditions to have established Friday as the day of worship by divine command. He says, "Friday was ordered as a divine day of worship both for the Jew and Christian, but they have acted contrary to the command. The Jew fixed Saturday and the Christian fixed Sunday."
According to the same traditions, Friday is "the best day on which the sun rises, the day on which Adam was taken into Paradise and turned out of it, the day on which he repented and on which he died. It will also be the Day of Resurrection."
There is also a certain hour on Friday (known only to God) on which a Muslim obtains all the good he asks of the Almighty. Muhammad prayed that God may put a seal on the heart of every Muslim who through
negligence omits prayer for three successive Fridays. Muhammad said:-
"Whoever bathes on Friday and comes to prayers in the beginning and comes on foot and sets near the Imam and listens to the khutbah, and says nothing playful, but sits silent, every step he took will get the rewards of a whole years worshiping and rewards of one year's fast and one year's praying at night,"
There are three descriptions of people present on Friday, one of them who comes to the masjid talking triflingly, and this is what he gets instead of rewards; and there is a man who is present for making supplications, and he asks God and if He wills He gives him, if not, refuses; the third a man who attends to hear the khutbah and is silent and does not incommode anyone and this Friday covers his sins till the next, and three days longer; for God says, Whoever doth one good act will receive ten in return. (Mishkat, book iv c xliii) [KHUTBAH.]
FRIENDSHIP with Jews and Christians condemned in the Qur'an, Surah v 56, "O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and Christians for your friends (or patrons) they are the friends of each other; but whoso amongst you takes them for friends verily he is of them and, verily God guides not an unjust people."
"He it is who produceth gardens of the vine trellised and untrellised, and the palm trees, and the corn of various food, and olives, and pomegranates like and unlike. Eat of their fruit when they bear fruit and pay the due thereof on the day of it ingathering and be not prodigal, for God loveth not the prodigal."
"And He it is who hath outstretched the earth and placed on it the firm mountains and rivers; and of every fruit He hath placed on it two kinds. He causeth the night to enshroud the day. Verily in this are signs for those who reflect.
And on the earth hard by each other are its various portions; gardens of grapes and corn, and palm trees single or clustered. Though watered by the same water, yet some make we more excellent as food than other. Verily in all this are signs for those who understand."
FUGITIVES (1) A fugitive slave, either male of female, is call abiq . The capture of a fugitive slave is a laudable act, and the captor is entitled to a reward of forty dirhams. (2) A fugitive on account of religion is called muhajir . Special blessings are promised on those who flee their country on account of their being Muslims.
FULS An idol (or an idol temple), belonging to the Bani Taly, a tribe divided between the profession of idolatry and Christianity. Destroyed by Ail by order of Muhammad, A.H. 630. (Muir, vol iv p 177.)
AL-FURQAN (1) The title of the xxvth Surah of the Qur'an. (2) One of the titles of the Qur'an (Surah ii 181; iii 2; xxv 1). (3) The title given to the Taurat revealed to Moses (Surah ii 50; xxi 49). (4) The victory on the day of the battle of Badr (Surah viii 42) (5) A terms used by Sufi mystics for a distinguishing between truth and error.
Muhammadan lexicographers are unanimous in interpreting the word furqan to mean that which distinguishes between good and evil, lawful and unlawful. The Jews use the wordperek, or pirka, from the same root, to denote a section or portion of scripture.
FUSSILAT Lit. "Were made plain." A title of the xlist Surah of the Qur'an from the word occurring in the second verse. The Surah is also known as the Hamim as-Sajdah to distinguish it from the Surah xxxiind, which is also called as-Sajdah, or "Adoration."
FUTURE LIFE The immortality of the soul and the reality of a future life are very distinctive doctrines of the religion of Muhammad, and very numerous are the references to it in the Qur'an. The whole system of Islam is based upon the belief in the future existence of the soul of man. A description of the special character of this future life will be found in the article on PARADISE.
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